Sunday, July 31, 2011

Maha-Narayanopanishad - A Scripture Which Glorifies Lord Shiva - PART II


Pre-requisite:

To read Maha Narayanopanishad Part-I Click Here


Maha Narayanopanishad Part - II



Maha Narayanopanishad II-1:


jaatavedase sunavaama somamaraatiiyato nidahaati vedaH |
sa naH parshhadati durgaaNi vishvaa naaveva sindhu.n duritaatyagniH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.2.1.1)

MEANING:

II-1: May we offer oblations of soma to Jatavedas. May the all-knowing One destroy what is unfriendly to us. May He, the Divine Fire that leads all, protect us by taking across all perils even as a captain takes the boat across the sea. May He also save us from all wrongs.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here we are required to analyze the following qualities of the Supreme lord represented as fire. Let's see who is that supreme fire:
- The supreme fire is all-knowing one
- The divine fire ferries men over all perils (sins) of samsara ocean

For the first point we have a direct statement as given below:

"vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |" (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
"Thou art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire-Jataveda). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born, the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient"

This verse directly calls Lord shiva as the all knowing Jataveda fire. Now let's analyze the second point. The second opint is not at all new to us. We've studied that point in detail umpteen times. Let me again make a note of that verse which clarifies this point:

"namah paryaya chavaryaya cha |
namah prataAranaya chottaranaya cha |" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram - Anuvaka:8)
"Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether".

Further Rigveda 7:59:12 states the famous Maha Mrityunjaya Mantram which occurs in Yajurveda-Sri Rudram as well. In this Mahamrityunjaya Mantra Vedas (Vedic seers) request Lord Shiva for liberation. So, it's crystal clear that the Purushottama (Rudra) is the only Lord who can grant liberation

Therefore it is crystal clear that this verse to Jatavedas is actually addressed to lord Rudra.

||DURGA SUKTAM ||

Maha Narayanopanishad II-2 (Durga Sukta):

taamagnivarNaa.n tapasaa jvalantii.n vairochanii.n karmaphaleshhu jushhTaam.h |
durgaa.n deviim sharaNamahaM prapadye sutarasi tarase namaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.2.1.2)

MEANING:

II-2: I take refuge in Her, the Goddess Durga, who is fiery in lustre and radiant with ardency, who is the Power belonging to the Supreme who manifests Himself manifoldly, who is the Power residing in actions and their fruits rendering them efficacious (or the Power that is supplicated to by the devotees for the fruition of their work). O Thou Goddess skilled in saving. Thou takest us across difficulties excellently well. Our salutations to Thee.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse and subsequent verses of Durga Suktam do not require any further analysis since every Hindu knows whose consort and shakti is Goddess Durga. Yes, the one and only Lord Shiva! Mahishasura Mardini Stotram of Goddess Durga starts with "Ayi Giri Nandini" (O daughter of Mountain), and it makes it crystal clear that Durga is an aspect of mother Parvati only.

Secondly, few scholars say that the original sukta of Durga from Rig Veda has only 6 riks viz., "Jaatavedase sunavaama...."(1) to "Pratnoshikameedhyo Adhvareshu"....(6)

The akshara sankhya from first rik to sixth rik are 43, 43, 41, 42, 43, 40
respectively. So, the Total BeejAksharas are 252 in number. Rests of the riks are
incorporation. The mula patha does not have the rest of the riks. Because, there is an inherent Vanadurga Yantra which is drawn with the help of these 6 riks with 252 parivara devatas of Vana Durga. So, the 252 Parivara Devatas of Durga Sukta Yantra exactly matches with 252 Aksharas of Durga Sukta Rik of Rg Veda.

The yantra is called 'Bhadramashtara Mandalam'. It is a yantra with 2
bhupuras, 1 vritta, 32 dala padmas, 16 dala padmas, 8 dala padmas, 4 dala
padmas, 1 shatkona, 1 urdhva mukha trikona and 1 virtta again. At the bindu sthana, Bhagavati, Jatavedasi, Vishvarani, Vanadurga, Purushi are worshipped. So, these 252 parivara devatas are accordingly placed in the Bhadramashtara Yantra and the Vanadurga is worshipped.

But in this translation of Mahanarayanopanishad, Swami Vimalananda has marked the beginning of this SUkta from verse 2 and hasn't kept an ending mark. So, even if we go by the modern version of Durga Suktam comprising of all these 7 verses, then also it's not an issue since entire hymn is actually dedicated to Jataveda(Agni) and he is addressed as Mother Durga in few verses. Anyway, Shakti-Shiva are one, hence it doesn't matter which verse talks in masculine sense and which in feminine sense, after all it goes to that androgynous supreme lord lord Ardhanareshwara only.

Maha Narayanopanishad II-3 (Durga Sukta):

agne tvaM paarayaa navyo asmaan svastibhirati durgaaNi vishvaa |
puushcha pR^ithvii bahulaa na urvii bhavaa tokaaya tanayaaya sha.nyoH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.2.1.3)

MEANING:

II-3: O Fire, thou art worthy of praise. With happy methods take us beyond all difficulties. May our home town and home land become extensive and may the plot of earth (for growing the crops) also be ample. Further be thou pleased to join our children and their children with joy.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here Durga is represented as the fire which is true since Shiva and Shakti are not two they are just one entity represented as two aspects. Since Shiva is himself the infinite Jwala linga (Fire pillar Skhambha), Shakti (Durga) is not different from being supreme fire.

Maha Narayanopanishad II-4 (Durga Sukta):

vishvaani no durgahaa jaatavedaH sindhu.n na vaavaa duritaatiparshhi |
agne atrivanmanasaa gR^iNaano.asmaaka.n bodhyavitaa tanuunaam.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.2.1.4)

MEANING:

II-4: O Jatavedas, Thou who art the destroyer of all sins takest us beyond all troubles and protectest us just as one is taken across the sea by a boat. O Fire, guard our bodies and be mindful (of its safety) like the sage Atri who always repeats mentally (‘May everyone be whole and happy’).

Maha Narayanopanishad II-5 (Durga Sukta):

pR^itanaajitam sahamaanamugnamagnim huvema paramaatsadhastaat.h |
sa naH parshhadati durgaaNi vishvaa kshaamaddevo ati duritaatyagniH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.2.1.5)

MEANING:

II-5: We invoke from the highest place of assembly the Fire-God who is the leader of all, who is the charger and vanquisher of the hosts of enemies, and who is fierce. May He, the Fire-God take us across all our difficulties and wrongs and all that is perishable, and protect us.

Maha Narayanopanishad II-6 (Durga Sukta):

pratnoshhi kamiiDyo adhvareshhu sanaachcha hotaa navyashcha satsi |
svaa.n chaagne tanuvaM piprayasvaasmabhya.n cha saubhagamaayajasva | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.2.1.6)

MEANING:

II-6: Thou who art lauded in sacrifices increasest our happiness. Thou abidest in the form of sacrifices, ancient and recent, in the places of sacrifice. O Fire, be thou pleased to make (us) happy (who are) thine own selves. Further grant us from all sides good fortune.

Maha Narayanopanishad II-7 (Durga Sukta):

gobhirjushhTamayujo nishhikta.n tavendra vishhNoranusa.ncharema |
naakasya pR^ishhThamabhi sa.nvasaano vaishhNavii.n loka iha maadayantaam.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.2.1.7)

MEANING:

II-7: O Lord, Thou art unconnected (with sin and sorrow) and Thou pervadest (all sacrifices). (Desirous of good fortune) comprising in cattle and overflowing (with the current of immortal bliss) may we serve Thee without break. May the gods who dwell in the highest region of heaven delight me – (practising loving adoration) for Vishnu – here on the earth by granting my wish.

Maha Narayanopanishad III-1:

bhuurannamagnaye pR^ithivyai svaahaa bhuvo.anna.m
vaayave.antarikshaaya svaahaa suvarannamaadityaaya dive svaahaa
bhuurbhuvassuvaranna.n chandramase digbhyaH svaahaa namo devebhyaH
svadhaa pitR^ibhyo bhuurbhuvaH suvarannamom.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.3.1)

MEANING:

III-1: (May the Deity) Earth (grant me) food. For that I make oblation to Fire and Earth. Hail ! (May the Deity of) Atmosphere (grant me) food. For that I make oblation to Air and Atmosphere. Hail ! (May the Deity of) Heaven (grant me) food. For that I make oblation to the Sun and Heaven. Hail ! (May the Deities of) Earth, Atmosphere and Heaven (grant me) food. For that I make oblation to the Moon and the Quarters. Hail ! Salutation to Gods ! Svadha (reverence) to Manes ! (May the Deities of) Earth, Atmosphere and Heaven (assert to my desire with the utterance of) Om (and grant me) food.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here this verse asks food to various forms of Gods viz. Earth, Sky, Air, Sun, etc. But finally it is Lord Rudra who is present in the form of all these manifested forms/deities. Hence this prayer is actually addressed to Lord Rudra. Also it is lord Rudra alone who is the lord and giver of food as voiced by Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2 from Yajurveda "annanam pataye namo (Salutations to the lord of food)".

Hence this prayer directly or indirectly goes to lord Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad IV-1:

bhuuragnaye pR^ithivyai svaahaa bhuvo vaayave.antarikshaaya svaahaa
suvaraadityaaya dive svaahaa bhurbhuvassuvashchandramase digbhyaH
svaahaa namo devebhyaH svadhaa pitR^ibhyo bhuurbhuvaHsuvaragna om.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.4.1)

MEANING:

IV-1: Hail ! I offer this oblation to Brahman who is expressed by the first Vyahriti, to Fire created by Him and to the Earth dependent on Him. Hail ! I offer this oblation to Brahman who is expressed by the second Vyahriti, to the Air created by Him and to the Atmosphere dependent on Him. Hail ! I offer this oblation to Brahman who is expressed by the third Vyahriti, to the Sun created by Him and to Heaven dependent on Him. Hail ! I offer this oblation to Brahman who is expressed by the Vyahritis, Bhuh, Bhuvah and Suvah, to the Moon created by Him and to the Quarters. Salutations to the gods dwelling in all the regions ! Reverence to the departed ancestors ! I am that Brahman expressed by Om in unity and also expressed by the three Vyahritis in His threefold aspect. O Divine Fire, assent to my prayer.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here we're required to analyze the following points:
- Who is Brahman of Vedas to whom this verse offers oblations (Vyahriti)
- That Brahman should be the father of Agni, Vayu, Sun, Moon, Directions
- That Brahman should be the support of earth, atmosphere and heaven

Let's first notice whom the Vedas call as Brahman.

"R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
"Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness and Truth, is the androgynous Person the Umamaheshvara, dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste and possessing uncommon eyes. Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe or whose form is the universe".

Now moving on to the second point:

"somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ |
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ |" (Rig Veda IX.96.5)
"Father of sacred chants, Soma flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu". Soma (Sa+Uma) Lord who is with Uma.

We know who is the lord of all quarters (directions)- it is again Lord Shiva (Dishanaam Pataye Namo). Lord Shiva is the father of Moon also as clarified in Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:16.

Regarding the last point which is about Brahman being the progenitor / support of Heaven, Earth and atmosphere we have the following evidences.

"Bhavo divo bhava ise prithivya bhavaa a papra urv antarikshamtasyai namo yatamasyam disi tah |"(Atarvaveda IX-2-27)
"Bhava rules the sky(àntariksham), Bhava rules the earth(prithivya); Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!"

skambhénemé víṣṭabhite dyáuś ca bhū́miś ca tiṣṭhataḥ
skambhá idáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇán nimiṣác ca yát (Atharvaveda X:8.2)
"Upheld by Skambha's power these two, the heaven and the earth, stand fast. Skambha is all this world of life, whatever breathes or shuts eye".

Hence it's clear that this verse offers oblations to lord Rudra alone.

Maha Narayanopanishad V-1:

bhuuragnaye cha pR^ithivyai cha mahate cha svaahaa bhuvo vaayave
chaantarikshaaya cha mahate cha svaahaa suvaraadityaaya cha dive cha
mahate cha svaahaa bhuurbhuvassuvashchandramase cha
nakshatrebhyashcha digbhyashcha mahate cha svaahaa namo devebhyaH svadhaa pitR^ibhyo
bhurbhuvaH suvarmaharom.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.5.1)

MEANING:

V-1: Hail ! I offer this oblation to the adorable Supreme who is the All and to His parts, the Deities, Bhuh, Fire and Earth. Hail ! I offer this oblation to the adorable Supreme who is the All and to His parts, Bhuvah, Air and Atmosphere. Hail ! I offer this oblation to the adorable Supreme who is the All and to His parts, Suvah, the Sun and Heaven. Hail ! I offer this oblation to the adorable Supreme who is the All and to His parts, Bhuh, Bhuvah, Suvah, the Moon, the Asterisms and the Quarters. Salutations to Gods ! Reverence to Manes ! I am that Supreme Reality expressed by the syllable Om and the three Vyahritis, Bhuh, Bhuvah and Suvah. May I attain the supreme !

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse and few following ones are simple oblations offered to the Supreme. And it is already analyzed who that Supreme is. These verses more or less repeat the same prayers in different language hence there is no point in repeating the analysis from our side. Let's skip such repeating verses from our analysis.

Maha Narayanopanishad VI-1:

paahi no agna enase svaahaa
paahi no vishvavedase svaahaa
yaj~naM paahi vibhaavaso svaahaa
sarvaM paahi shatakrato svaahaa | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.6.1)

MEANING:

VI-1: O Fire, preserve us from sin. Hail ! Preserve us so that we may attain full knowledge. Hail ! O Resplendent One, preserve our sacrificial acts. Hail ! O Satakratu, preserve everything (that belongs to us). Hail !

Maha Narayanopanishad VII-1:

paahi no agna ekayaa
paahyuta dvitiiyayaa
paahyuurja tR^itiiyayaa
paahi giirbhishchatasR^ibhirvaso svaahaa | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.7.1)

MEANING:

VII-1: O Divine Fire, O settler of all creatures, being praised by the hymns of the first Veda be gracious to protect us. Hail ! Further, being praised by the hymns of the second Veda be gracious to protect us. Hail ! Being praised by the hymns of the third Veda be gracious to protect our food and strengthening essence of it. Hail ! Being praised by the hymns of the four Vedas be gracious to protect us. Hail !

Maha Narayanopanishad VIII-1:

yashchhandasaamR^ishhabho vishvaruupashchhandobhyashchandaamsyaavivesha |
sataamshikyaH provaachopanishhadindro jyeshhTha indriyaaya R^ishhibhyo namo |
devebhyaH svadhaa pitR^ibhyo bhuurbhuvassuvashchhanda om.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.8.1)

MEANING:

VIII-1: The Supreme Being, Indra, who is the most excellent Pranava taught in the Vedas, who ensouls the entire universe, who leads the collection of Vedic utterances in Gayatri and other metres standing in their beginning, who is capable of being attained by the worshippers and who is the first in the causal link, taught the contemplative sages the sacred wisdom of the Upanishad, Himself being the subject-matter of them, in order to strengthen them with the power of knowledge. I salute the gods for removing the obstacles in my path to illumination. For the same I also reverence the Manes. The triple regions of Bhuh, Bhuvah and Suvah and the entire Veda are comprised in Om.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here are the highlights what we need to analyze:

- The Supreme Being, Indra, who is the most excellent Pranava taught in the Vedas,
- who ensouls the entire universe, who leads the collection of Vedic utterances in Gayatri and other metres standing in their beginning (means OM),
- who is the first in the causal link, taught the contemplative sages the sacred wisdom of the Upanishad, Himself being the subject-matter of them, in order to strengthen them with the power of knowledge.

First point says that the supreme being is Pranava (OM) which is being represented here as Indra. Now since we already know that Indra is a manifestation of Rudra, so Indra being the supreme being is just a simile and actually it talks about someone else. Now let's see who qualifies to this post.

"iishaanaH sarvavidyaanaamiishvaraH sarvabhuutaanaaM |
brahmaadhipatirbrahmaNo.adhipatirbrahmaa shivo me astu sadaashivom.h |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.21.1)
"May the Supreme who is the ruler of all knowledge, controller of all created beings, the preserver of the Vedas and the one overlord of Hiranyagarbha, be benign to me. I am the Sadasiva described thus and denoted by Pranava".

"tasyottarataH shiro dakShiNataH pAdau ya uttarataH sa o~NkAraH ya o~NkAraH sa praNavaH yaH praNavaH sa sarvavyApI yaH sarvavyApI so.anantaH
yo.anantastattAra.n yattAra.n tatsUkShma.n tachChukla.n
yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM
brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya
IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
"The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. Its feet are on your right side. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava(primeval sound). That Pranava is spread everywhere. That which is everywhere is the greatest. That which is limitless, shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also Eeshana (the form of Lord Shiva with tuft and riding on a bull), it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things".

For the second point we need to identify the lord who encapsules the entire universe, and is the generator of Gayatri kind of mantras. For that we have the following evidence.

"atha kasmAduchyate.ananto yasmAduchchAryamANa eva
tiryagUrdhvamadhastAchchAsyAnto nopalabhyate tasmAduchyate.anantaH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad)
"He is called “all pervading “ because like oil in gingili (Til), he peacefully pervades all over the world and its beings, from top to bottom and from right to left. He is called “Anantha (endless)”, because his end is neither at the top nor bottom, nor right nor left".

"AUMkArAtsAvitrI sAvityA gAyatrI gAyatryA lokA bhavanti |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:6)
"From “the sound of Om”, Savithri is produced. From Savithri, Gayathri is produced and from Gayathri, all the worlds are produced".
And since OM is Rudra, it is Rudra who is the generator of Savitri, Gayatri and all worlds.

For the third point: In Kaivalopanishad Lord Shiva himself speaks the following:

"vedairanekairahameva vedyo vedaantakR^idvedavideva chaaham.h |
na puNyapaape mama naasti naasho na janma dehendriyabuddhirasti |" (Kaivalyopanishad 22)
"I alone am taught in the various Vedas, I am the revealer of the Vedanta or Upanishads, and I am also the Knower of the Vedas. For me there is neither merit nor demerit, I suffer no destruction, I have no birth, nor any self-identity with the body and the organs".

This proves the third point that the subject matter of Vedas and Upanishads is Lord Shiva alone. So, it is clear now that the Indra described in this verse of VIII-1 is actually the lord Rudra.

Maha Narayanopanishad IX-1:

namo brahmaNe dhaaraNaM me astvaniraakaraNa.n dhaarayitaa bhuuyaasa.n
karNayoH shrutaM maa chyoDhaM mamaamushhya om.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.9.1)

MEANING:

IX-1: My salutations to the Supreme. May I concentrate my thoughts upon Him (in order that I may be united with Him). May I become one practising concentration of thought without distraction. I have heard enough with my ears (and perceived pleasurable objects through other senses). O my senses, do not fail me now (but settle yourselves in the Supreme Brahman with whom I wish to unite myself through the meditation of) Om.

Maha Narayanopanishad X-1:

R^ita.n tapaH satya.n tapaH shruta.n tapaH shaanta.n tapo damastapaH shamastapo daana.n |
tapo yaj~na.n tapo bhuurbhuvaH suvarbrahmaitadupaasvaitattapaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.10.1)

MEANING:

X-1: Right is austerity. Truth is austerity. Understanding of the scriptures is austerity. Subduing of one’s senses is austerity. Restraint of the body through such means like fast is austerity. Cultivation of a peaceable disposition is austerity. Giving gifts without selfish motives is austerity. Worship is austerity. The Supreme Brahman has manifested Himself as Bhuh, Bhuvah and Suvah. Meditate upon Him. This is austerity par excellence.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

We would just analyze the point that the Supreme Brahman manifested as Bhu, Bhuva, Suvar lokas.
In this connection Atharvasiras Upanishad mentions the following statement about lord Rudra.

"bhUste AdirmadhyaM bhuvaH svaste shIrSha.n vishvarUpo.asi |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3.1)
"Earth is your feet. The Bhuvar Loka (one of the seven worlds above earth) is your middle. And the Suvar Loka (another world above earth) is your head. You are of the form of the universe".

Also, we had discussed earlier that from lord Rudra only entire Jagat manifested. So, this "Supreme" in this verse X-1 is addressed to lord Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad XI-1:

yathaa vR^ikshasya saMpushhpitasya duuraadgandho vaatyevaM puNyasya |
karmaNo duuraadgandho vaati yathaasidhaaraa.n karte.avahitamavakraame yadyuve yuve
havaa vihvayishhyaami karta.n patishhyaamiityevamamR^itaadaatmaana.n jugupset.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.11.1)

MEANING:

XI-1: Just in the same manner as the fragrance of a tree in full blossom is wafted by the wind from a distant place, the fragrance of meritorious deeds – the good name that accrues from them – spreads to a great distance (as far as heaven). There is gain this illustration. The cutting edge of a sword is laid across a pit. ‘I am placing my feet on it, I am treading over it. So saying if I walk over it, I will be perturbed by the thought of hurt or fall into the pit’. In the same manner a man who is exposed to open and hidden sins must seek to guard himself from either in order that he may attain Immortality.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-1:

aNoraNiiyaan mahato mahiiyaanaatmaa guhaayaa.n nihito.asya jantoH |
tamakratuM pashyati viitashoko dhaatuH prasaadaanmahimaanamiisham.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.1.1)

MEANING:

XII-1: The Infinite Self more minute than the minute and greater than the great is set in the heart of the beings here. Through the grace of the Creator one realises Him who is free from desires based on values, who is supremely great and who is the highest ruler and master of all, and becomes free from sorrows.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

The same is mentioned in Kaivalyopanishad which speaks about Lord Shiva.

"aNoraNiiyaanahameva tadvanmahaanahaM vishvamahaM vichitram.h |
puraatano.ahaM puruSho.ahamiisho hiraNmayo.ahaM shivaruupamasmi |" (Kaivalyopanishat 20)
"I am minuter than the minute, I am likewise the greatest of all, I am the manifold universe. I am the Ancient One, the Purusha and the Ruler, I am the Effulgent One, and the All-good".

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-2:

sapta praaNaa prabhavanti tasmaat saptaarchishhaH samidhaH sapta jihvaaH |
sapta ime lokaa yeshhu charanti praaNaa guhaashayaannihitaaH sapta sapta (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.1.2)

MEANING:

XII-2: From Him originate the seven Pranas, the seven flames, their fuel, the seven tongues and the seven worlds in which the life-breaths move. (Further other things that are) sevenfold also come forth from Him, who dwells in the secret place of the heart and are set (in their respective places).

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is an interesting verse, which is not a duplicate one and we haven't come across such a direct verse to Prana. Let's analyze this in minutest details. We require to analyze the following attributes of the supreme Prana.

- From Him (Who is he?) originate the seven Pranas, the seven flames, their fuel, the seven tongues and the seven worlds in which the life-breaths move. (Further other things that are) sevenfold also come forth from Him.
- Who dwells in the secret place of the heart and are set (in their respective places).

The second attribute clearly we have discussed numerous times that it is Lord Rudra alone who resides in the heart of all beings and all gods also. So, let's focus on the first point only here.

For the first point we need to understand from whom the seven pranas (life forces) emerged. The seven pranas are called as flames (sparks). The entity which is described having seven tongues is fire since fire god is called to have multiple tongues. The primordial fire (jwala Linga) is lord Rudra, but let's not conclude so easily. Let's see few interesting vedic verses which support the origin as Rudra.

Shatapatha Brahmana gives a symbolic representation of the theory of creation. It states the following things:

"asadvā idamagra āsīt | tadāhuḥ kiṃ tadasadāsīdityṛṣayo vāva te gre sadāsīttadāhuḥ ke
ta ṛṣaya iti prāṇā vā ṛṣayaste yatpurāsmātsarvasmādidamicantaḥ śrameṇa
tapasāriṣaṃstasmādṛṣayaḥ dhyata indriyeṇainddha yadainddha tasmādindha indho
ha vai tam |" (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:1:1)
"Verily, in the beginning there was here the non-existent. As to this they say, 'What was that non-existent?' The Rishis, assuredly,--it is they that were the non-existent. As to this they say, 'Who were those Rishis?' The Rishis, doubtless, were the vital airs (Prana-s): inasmuch as before (the existence of) this universe, they, desiring it, wore themselves out (rish) with toil and austerity, therefore (they are called) Rishis".

"sa yo yam madhye prāṇaḥ | eṣa evendrastāneṣa prāṇānmaindra ityācakṣate paro
'kṣam paro 'kṣakāmā hi devāsta iddhāḥ sapta nānā puruṣānasṛjanta |"
"This same vital air in the midst doubtless is Indra. He, by his power (indriya), kindled those (other) vital airs from the midst; and inasmuch as he kindled (indh), he is the kindler (indha): the kindler indeed,--him they call 'Indra' mystically (esoterically), for the gods love the mystic. They (the vital airs), being kindled, created seven separate persons (purusha)".

Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:1:3 says, "seven persons (pranas) were merged into one and made one".

The above descriptions and depictions have a deep inner meaning. Neither the word "rishis" mean "sages", nor the deity "Indra" refers to "lord of heaven". The seven vital airs which are called as "rishis" are actually the sevenfold vital elemental framework required for creation. Those seven 'pranas' are also represented as maruts. Atharva Veda gives specific details of what were the seven life breaths and how they transformed into various deities and 'Pancha bhutas' which when collectively considered they form the complete universe. That's perhaps the inner meaning when Shatapatha brahmana says that the seven 'Purushas' were pressed and merged into one. It perhaps means the seven vital framework elements which emerged out was merged (forged together) to cast this universe. Let's review Atharva Veda's statements now.

Atharva Veda states that seven vital breaths emerged from Vratya (Lord Shiva), and it also clarifies all the various seven-fold creation whatever emerged from Vratya's breaths as follows:

Atharva Veda - A Hymn to Vratya (Rudra) says:

" tásya vrā́tyasya |" (Atharva Veda 15:15:1)
" saptá prāṇā́ḥ saptā́pānā́ḥ saptá vyānā́ḥ |"
(Atharva Veda 15:15:2)
"Of that Vrātya (Shiva). There are seven vital airs, seven downward breaths, seven diffused breaths".

His seven Prana breaths are depicted as follows:

"yò 'sya prathamáḥ prāṇá ūrdhvó nā́māyáṃ só agníḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.3)
"His first vital breath, called Upward, is this Agni".
"yò 'sya dvitī́yaḥ prāṇáḥ práuḍho nā́māsáu sá ādityáḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.4)
"His second vital breath, called Mature, is that Āditya".
"yò 'sya tr̥tī́yaḥ prāṇò 'bhyū̀ḍho nā́māsáu sá candrámāḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.5)
"His third vital breath, called Approached, is that Moon".
"yò 'sya caturtháḥ prāṇó vibhū́r nā́māyáṃ sá pávamānaḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.6)
"His fourth vital breath, called Pervading is this Pavamāna".
"yò 'sya pañcamáḥ prāṇó yónir nā́ma tā́ imā́ ā́paḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.7)
"His fifth vital breath, called Source, are these Waters".
"yò 'sya ṣaṣṭháḥ prāṇáḥ priyó nā́ma tá imé paśávaḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.8)
"His sixth vital breath, called Dear, are these domestic animals".
"yò 'sya saptamáḥ prāṇó 'parimito nā́ma tā́ imā́ḥ prajā́ḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.9)
"His seventh vital breath, called Unlimited, are these creatures".

His seven Apana breaths are depicted as follows:

"yò 'sya prathamò 'pānáḥ sā́ paurṇamāsī́|" (Atharva Veda 15:16.1)
"His first downward breath is the time of Full Moon".
"yò 'sya dvitī́yo 'pānáḥ sā́ṣṭakā |" (Atharva Veda 15:16.2)
"His second downward breath is the eighth day after Full Moon".
"yò 'sya tr̥tī́yo 'pānáḥ sā́māvāsyā̀|" (Atharva Veda 15:16.3)
"His third downward breath is the night of New Moon".
"yò 'sya caturthò 'pānáḥ sā́ śraddhā́|" (Atharva Veda 15:16.4)
"His fourth downward breath is Faith".
"yò 'sya pañcamò 'pānáḥ sā́ dīkṣā́|" (Atharva Veda 15:16.5)
"His fifth downward breath is Consecration".
"yò 'sya ṣaṣṭhò 'pānáḥ sá yajñáḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:16.6)
"His sixth downward breath is Sacrifice".
"yò 'sya saptamò 'pānás tā́ imā́ dákṣiṇāḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:16.7)
"His seventh downward breath are these sacrificial fees".

His seven vyana breaths are depicted as follows:

"yò 'sya prathamó vyānáḥ séyáṃ bhū́miḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.1)
"His first diffused breath is this Earth".
"yò 'sya dvitī́yo vyānás tád antárikṣam |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.2)
"His second diffused breath is that Firmament".
"yò 'sya tr̥tī́yo vyānáḥ sā́ dyáuḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.3)
"His third diffused breath is that Heaven".
"yò 'sya caturthó vyānás tā́ni nákṣatrāṇi |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.4)
"His fourth diffused breath are those Constellations".
"yò 'sya pañcamó vyānás tá r̥távaḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.5)
"His fifth diffused breath are the Seasons".
"yò 'sya ṣaṣṭhó vyānás tá ārtavā́ḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.6)
"His sixth diffused breath are the Season-groups".
"yò 'sya saptamó vyānáḥ sá saṃvatsaráḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.7)
"His seventh diffused breath is the year".

Hence the three sets of seven breaths which emerged from Rudra (Vratya) became instrumental in formation of the universe.

Apart from being the macrocosmic elements, those life breaths of Rudra are also instrumental in supporting the microcosmic life forces of all creatures in the form of vital breaths. Pranas(Life forces) are known as Rudras(maruts). They are popularly called as "Sons of Rudra (as Rudra is Atma)". Hence, Rudra (Atma) is called as 'Prana' of 'pranas'. In fact, there is only one 'Prana'. It performs several functions. So, depending on functions they are classified in several ways. The pranas are the Glory of Atman(Rudra).

The same Mahanarayanopanishad verse XII-2 identically exists in Mundaka Upanishad since both have taken the verse from Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.1.2, and both refer to Lord Rudra only as we had already studied above through other supporting verses. Also, the context of chapter II of Mundaka Upanishad is a discussion on Purusha (Rudra) and it states the following thing about Purusha being the generator of all sevenfold Pranas and other frameworks. Hence it is crystal clear that it is lord Rudra on whom these verses apply. However we would still continue our discussion further.

"sapta prANAH prabhavanti tasmAt.h saptArchiShaH samidhaH sapta homAH |
sapta ime lokA yeShu charanti prANA guhAshayA nihitAH sapta sapta |" (Mundaka Upanishad 2:1:8)
"From Him sprang the seven pranas, the seven flames, the seven kinds of fuel, the seven oblations, and these seven seats where move the sense-organs that sleep in the cavity, (and) have been deposited (by God) in groups of seven".

Since, Life forces sprang from Atman(Rudra) That's why the seers call Pranas(maruts/rudras) as Sons of Rudra(Atman).

"aatmana eshha praaNo jaayate | yathaishhaa purushhe
chhaayaitasminnetadaatataM manokR^itenaayaatyasmiJNshariire |" (Prashna Upanishad 3:3)
"From the Self (Atma) is born this Prana. Just as there can be shadow when a man is there, so this Prana is fixed on the self (Atman). Through the activity of the mind it comes into this body".

"sa yathorNabhistantunochchared sa yathA UrNavAbhis.h tantunA uchcharet.h
yathA.agneH kshudrA vishhphuliN^gA vyuchcharanty
yathA agnes.h kshudrAs.h vishhphuliN^gAs.h vyuchcharanti
evamevAsmAdAtmanaH sarve prANAH sarve lokAHsarve devAH sarvANi bhUtAni yuchcharanti |
evam.h eva asmAd.h Atmanas.h sarve prANAs.h sarve lokAs.h
sarve devAs.h sarvANi bhUtAni sarve ete Atmanas.h sarve ...
vyuchcharanti tasyopanishhatsatyasya satyamiti
tasya upanishhad.h satyasya satyam.h iti
prANA vai satya.n prANAs.h vai satyam.h
teshhAmeshha satyam.h |" (Brihadaranyaka. Upanishad II.1.20)
"As a spider moves along the thread (it produces), and as small sparks come forth from fire and fly in all directions, so from this Self (Rudra) emanate all Pranas (Rudras / Maruts), all worlds, all gods and all beings. Its secret name (Upanishad) is ‘the Truth of Truth’. The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that".

So, we have extensively analyzed this verse XII-2, and it refers to lord Rudra (Atma/Self) from whom the Pranas (Maruts, framework) sprang up. Let's move on to next verse.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-3:

ataH samudraa girayashcha sarve.asmaatsyandante sindhavaH sarvaruupaaH |
atashcha vishvaa oshhadhayo rasaashcha yenaishha bhuutastishhThatyantaraatmaa | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.1.3)

MEANING:

XII-3: From Him arise all the seas and mountains. From Him flow rivers of all kinds and from Him all herbs (medicines) and essences come forth; united with the essence of the herbs the individual Soul seated in the subtle body dwells in creatures.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is exactly same as Mundaka Upanishad II:1:9. Mundaka upanishad's chapter II is basically on the topic of Purusha and his attributes. We have seen many references before in support of the fact that Purusha is none other than Lord Rudra. So, basically Mundaka Upanishad II:1:9 and Maha Narayanopanishad XII-3 are actually eulogizing the story of origin of all entities like mountains, seas, rivers from lord Rudra (Purusha). However I'm not going to leave this section by stating this much only. We would specifically analyze this in detail.

"namo bhuvantaye" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2)
"Salutations to Him who has created the world and spread it broad".

So, when Rudra is the creator of world he becomes the origin of all mountains and oceans naturally. Further, Atharvaveda 15:17 a hymn to Vratya (Rudra) clearly states that Earth, Sky, Heaven and Constellations emerged from Lord Rudra (Vratya). And hope everyone knows that Oceans, and Mountains are just a part of Earth. So, it is obvious that the oceans and mountains also sprang from Rudra alone.

"yò 'sya prathamó vyānáḥ séyáṃ bhū́miḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.1)
"His first diffused breath is this Earth".
"yò 'sya dvitī́yo vyānás tád antárikṣam |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.2)
"His second diffused breath is that Firmament".
"yò 'sya tr̥tī́yo vyānáḥ sā́ dyáuḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.3)
"His third diffused breath is that Heaven".
"yò 'sya caturthó vyānás tā́ni nákṣatrāṇi |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.4)
"His fourth diffused breath are those Constellations".

Lord Rudra alone is present in waters also, as seen from below verses. And oceans being composed of water it becomes natural that ocean is a manifestation of Rudra only.

"nama urmyayacha vasvanyaya cha
nama strotasyaya cha dvipyaya cha |" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-5)
"Salutations to Him who is in great waves of ocean and in the still waters. Salutations to Him who is in the floods and in the islands".

"Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |" (YajurVeda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9 & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
"That Rudra who has even entered into and pervaded fire, the waters, vegetation, and all the worlds, let my salutations be to that Rudra". So, it proves that Lord Rudra is present in the form of waters be it in ocean or in a well, it proves that lord Rudra is present as all vegetation (herbs, shurbs, bushes, plants, trees) as well.

"Tamushhtuhi yah svishhuh sudhanva yo vishvasya kshayati bheshhajasya Yakshvamahe saumanasaya rudram nabhobhi rdevamasuram duvasya |" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-11)
"He who holds a beautiful and powerful shaft and a strong bow, He who is the source and repository of all medicines, praise Him alone. To gain the favor and goodwill of that supreme and effulgent God Rudra, let us worship Him, honor and adore Him by salutations". So, it also clarifies that from lord Rudra only herbs (medicines) come forth.

"aushhadhinam pataye namo" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2)
"To the Lord of all vegetation, salutations".

The below verses prove that Lord Rudra is the self (Jeeva / Atman) who resides in the hearts of all beings.

"nama ataryaya chaladyaya cha |" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-8)
"Salutations to Him who is born again and again in Samsara and who tastes the fruits of Karmas in the form of Jiva".

"GYaaGYau dvaavajaaviishaniishaavajaa hyekaa bhoktR^ibhogyaarthayuktaa |
anantashchaatmaa vishvaruupo hyakartaa traya.n yadaa vindate brahmametat.h |" (Svet. Upan 1:09)
"The Supreme Lord appears as Isvara, omniscient and omnipotent and as the jiva, of limited knowledge and power, both unborn. But this does not deny the phenomenal universe; for there exists further the unborn prakriti, which creates the ideas of the enjoyer, enjoyment and the object. Atman is infinite and all—pervading and therefore devoid of agency. When the seeker knows all these three to be Brahman, he is freed from his fetters".

"yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |" (Sve Upa. 3:7)
"He is vast and is hidden in the hearts of all living beings".

"sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |" (Sve Upa. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings".

So,with the above analysis we have successfully understood that from Lord Rudra sprang oceans, mountains (being a part of Earth), sky, heaven, constellations. Also, it is clear that Lord Rudra is present in vegetaion and medicines, he is alone the "self" (Jeevatma) and dwells in the heart of all creatures.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-4:

brahmaa devaanaaM padaviiH kaviinaamR^ishhirvipraaNaaM mahishho mR^igaaNaam.h |
shyeno gR^idhraaNaamsvadhitirvanaanaamsomaH pavitramatyeti rebhan.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.1.4)

MEANING:

XII-4: The Supreme having become the four-faced Brahma among gods, the master of right words among the composers, the seer among the intelligent people, the buffalo among animals, the kite among the birds, the cutting axe among the destructive tools and soma among the sacrificers, transcends all purifying agencies accompanied by the sound (of holy chant).

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Lord Rudra becmae Brahma (Prajapati) as stated below:

"sá yát prajā́ ánu vyácalat prajā́patir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat prāṇám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |"
(Atharva Veda 15:14:11)
"He, when he went away to creatures, went away having become Prajāpati and having made vital breath an eater of food".

To be a master of composers one has to be full of Vijnana (Knowledge). And Lord Shiva is himself the Vijnana then he is obviously the greatest composer. In the below verse Lord Shiva himself states what he is. Hope this is sufficient to understand that he is the supreme among superiors.

"vij~naano.asmi visheshho.asmi somo.asmi sakalo.asmyaham.h "
shubho.asmi shokahiino.asmi chaitanyo.asmi samo.asmyaham.h |" (Maitreyopanishad 3:3)
"I am the true knowledge (Vijnana), I am the special one, I am Soma, I am the all. I am the auspicious one, I am free from sorrow, I am consciousness, I am the impartial one".

Scriptures state that the highest Guru (seer) is Brihaspati. Of course the supreme Guru of such gurus is again Lord Dakshinamurty (Shiva), but if we leave aside Dakshinamurty then as per scriptures the most exahlted Guru is considered as Devguru-Brihaspati who is even the Guru of the celestials.

Atharvaveda 15:14:9 states that it is Lord Rudra (Vratya) who became Brihaspati, means who manifested as Brihaspati as given below.

"sá yád ūrdhvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad bŕ̥haspátir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad vaṣaṭkārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |" (Atharva Veda 15:14.9)
"He, when he went away to the upper region, went away having become Brihaspati and having made the exclamation Vashat an eater of food".
So, Lord Rudra is present as a greatest seer among intelligent people.

Lord Rudra is himself the fatehr of all creatures and in fact he only exists (manifests) as all creatures. So, he is not only the buffalo, he is all creatures also. He is alone the lord of all creatures as well. Let's see the following verses.

"umaapataye pashupataye namo namaH |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.22.1)
"Salutations to the overlord of all created beings and who is the lord of Uma".

"paśūntāṃścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān ghrāmyāśca ye |" (Rig Veda 10.90.8)
"He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame".

"Pashupatih Pashunaam Chatushpadam uta ca dvipadam |" (Yajurveda III-1-4 & Taittiriya Samhita 3:1:4:2)
"What cattle the lord of cattle(pashupati) ruleth?, He rules Both the four-footed and the two-footed."

"Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu |
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |" (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
"The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage".

Lord Rudra is the wielder of all weapons. Since weapons are made of five elements of nature, and since pancha Bhutas are manifested forms of Lord Rudra alone, it is correct to say that Lord Rudra alone exists in the form of all weapons. Scriptures have ample evidences of Lord Shiva holding a supreme battle axe. Rig Veda (2:33:3) calls Lord Rudra as "vajrabāho", which means, "thou wielder of the thunderbolt". Rudra Kavacham a hymn composed by sage Durvasa eulogizes lord Rudra as "Shoolam Vajram Cha Parashumabhayadam" (O lord Shiva you hold Trident, thunderbolt, and Battle Axe and your one hand remains in blessing posture). The same supreme weapon - the battle axe was given to Bhargava-Rama who became famous as Parashuram because of Parshu (battle Axe). Hence even though there is no direct verse that I know of to state which god exists as battle axe, it is evident from the above discussion that it is only Lord Rudra who qualifies for that attribute.

Lord Rudra is SOMA also as stated below:

"sá yád údīcīṃ díśam ánu vyácalat sómo rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat saptarṣíbhir hutá ā́hutim annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |" (Atharva Veda 15:14:4)
"He, when he went away to the northern region, went away having become King Soma and having made the Seven Rishis' oblation an eater of food".

Lord Shiva states :

"somo.asmi |" (Maitreyopanishad 3:3)
"I'm Soma"

So, SOMA who is best among the sacrificers is lord Rudra only. Further it is Lord Rudra from whom all "sacrifices" and "Sacrificial fees (Dakshina/Remuneration)" emerged. He alone remains in the form of "sacrifice" also. We have the following evidences for this statement.

"yò 'sya ṣaṣṭhò 'pānáḥ sá yajñáḥ |" (Atharva veda 15:16:6)
"His sixth downward breath is Sacrifice".
"yò 'sya saptamò 'pānás tā́ imā́ dákṣiṇāḥ |" (Atharva veda 15:16:7)
"His seventh downward breath are these sacrificial fees".
"rudro yaj~na umaa vedistasmai tasyai namo namaH |" (Rudrahridayopanishad 20)
"Rudra is Yajna. Uma is Vedi. Prostrations to Him and Her"

So, it is to be understood that Lord Rudra is in three-fold existence when it comes to sacrifice viz. the sacrificer(SOMA), the sacrifice(Yajna), and the sacrificial remuneration (Dakshina).

With this analysis we have proved that this beautiful verse XII-4 eulogizes Lord Rudra in such a nice way.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-5:

ajaamekaa.n lohitashuklakR^ishhNaaM bahviiM prajaa.n janayantiim saruupaam.h |
ajo hyeko jushhamaaNo.anushete jahaatyenaaM bhuktabhogaamajo.anyaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.1.5)

MEANING:

XII-5: There is one unborn Female (Maya, the uncaused substance of the universe) red, white and black (representing Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) producing manifold offspring of the same nature. There is one unborn (in the generic sense some Jivas who are attached) who lies by her taking delight in her; there is another unborn (in the generic sense those who are not attached) who leaves her after having enjoyed her.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse talsk about the Shakti aspect of Lord Shiva. The Mahatripura Sundari Devi who is the consort of Lord Shiva, she exists in threefold forms with her three qualities viz. Red goddess Mahalakshmi (with her Rajas quality), White goddess Mahasaraswati (with her Satva quality), and Black goddess Mahakali (with her Tamas quality). From Devi Bhagawatam and Durga Saptashati kind of Shakta texts we come to know about this. These texts further states that these three superior forms of goddess produces further forms from them viz. Mahalakshmi produces goddess Lakshmi, Mahasaraswati produces Goddess Saraswati, and Mahakali produces Goddess Parvati.

This verse XII-5 also talks about two kinds of unborn enjoyers of Maya viz. Jiva and Shiva. Jiva (the self) which remains blanketted by Maya remains as a prey to Maya and enjoys the fruits of Karmas in this samsaara. Whereas the realized Jiva becomes one with Shiva he transcends the curtain of Maya and renounces all the causes and effects of Samsaara. Hence he is depicted as leaving the Maya after enjoying it once.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-6:

ha.nsaH shuchishhadvasurantarikshasaddhotaa vedishhadatithirduroNasat.h |
nR^ishhadvarasadR^itasadvyomasadabjaa gojaa R^itajaa adrijaa R^itaM bR^ihat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.2.6)

MEANING:

XII-6: That which is the sun who abides in the clear sky, is the Vasu (the air that moves) in the mid-region, is the fire that dwells in the sacrificial altar and in the domestic hearth as the guest, is the fire that shines in men and in the gods, as the Soul, is the fire that is consecrated in the sacrifice, is dwelling in the sky as air, is born in water as submarine heat, is born in the rays of the sun, is the fire that is directly seen as the luminary, and is born on the mountain as the rising sun – that is the Supreme Truth, the Reality underlying all.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is again a repeatition of lord Rudra's qualities expressed another words. So, let's briefly discuss it once more.

Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:17 states that Lord Rudra manifested as Sun. So, it is lord Rudra who is the sun which abides in the clear sky.

Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:13 states that Lord Rudra manifested as Vayu. So, it is lord Rudra who is the Vayu which which moves in the mid-region (atmosphere).

Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:10 states that Lord Rudra manifested as Agni(fire). It is Lord Rudra (the primordial fire) only who is the indweller of all Gods (devana hridayebhyo namah - Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9). Also "sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH" which means, "He dwells in the hearts of all beings" as stated in Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:11. "rudro yaj~na" means ""Rudra is Yajna" as stated in Rudrahridayopanishad verse 20.
Further, the morning sun which rises from the horizons behind the mountains is also Rudra as stated in below verse.
"Asau yastamro aruna uta babhruh sumangalah Ye chemarudra abhito" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram - Anuvaka:1)
"This Sun who is copper-red when he arises, then golden-youllow, this highly auspicious and beneficent one is truly Rudra".

Therefore, it is lord Rudra who is the Fire of all kinds. Hence Lord Sri Rudra is the supreme truth - the reality underlying all as stated in XII-6 above.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-6 (A):

yasmaajjaataa na paraa naiva ki.nchanaasa ya aavivesha bhuvanaani vishvaa |
prajaapatiH prajayaa sa.nvidaanastriiNi jyotiimshhi sachate sa shhoDashii | XII-6A

MEANING:

XII-6 (A): The beings born from Prajapati are not separate from Him. Before their birth nothing whatsoever existed other than Him, who entered all the creatures of the world as their in-most Self. Prajapati has identified Himself with the creatures. He imparts the three luminaries, fire, sun and moon, lustre by identifying Himself with them. He is endowed with sixteen parts.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

It states that the beings born from Prajapati aren't separate from him. That's true. But in fact Prajapati himself is not separate from his cause (Rudra). Hence the beings born from Prajapati, Prajapati himself and everything that is manifest or un-manifest is not separate from Rudra since Rudra is the original cause of all causes. This verse XII-6(A) talks about Prajapati but in reality Rudra fathered Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha) and through Prajapati he himself appeared or manifested in the form of various gods, creatures, and elements. Therefore it should actually mean that all creatures which emerged from Prajapati (including him) are not separate from Rudra. This verse actually implies about Rudra but talks using the name Prajapati. And it's lord Rudra who entered all beings as their indwelling self. Since Rudra himself exists as Fire, Sun and Moon, it's Rudra's illumination that is reflected by these three heavenly deities. Further the sixteen parts is nothing but the sixteen petals of the Anahata chakra present inside our body where lord Rudra resides within the chakra which is situated inside the heart. Let's see supporting verses now:

"hiraṇyagarbhám paramám anatyudyáṃ jánā viduḥ |
skambhás tád ágre prā́siñcad dhíraṇyaṃ loké antarā́|" (Atharva veda X:7:28)
"Men know Hiranyagarbha as supreme and inexpressible: In the beginning, in the midst of the world, Skambha(pillar/Jwala-linga) poured (i.e., gave birth) that Hiranyagarbha" .
So, Lord Shiva in his Jwala-Linga form existed even before Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha), and he gave birth to Prajapati.

Lord Rudra after giving birth to Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha), the same unborn Rudra manifested into various forms through Prajapati. The below verses of Atharva Veda clarifies this nicely.

"vrā́tya āsīd ī́yamāna evá sá prajā́patiṃ sám airayat || sá prajā́patiḥ suvárṇam ātmánn apaśyat tát prā́janayat || tád ékam abhavat tál lalā́mam abhavat tán mahád abhavat táj jyeṣṭhám abhavat tád bráhmābhavat tát tápo 'bhavat tát satyám abhavat téna prā́jāyata ||" ( Atharva Veda 15:1:1-3)
"There was Vratya( Ascetic form of Lord shiva) . He roused Prajapati to action. Prajapati beheld gold in himself and engendered it. That became unique, that became distinguished, that became great, that became excellent, that became Brahman, that became Tapas, that became Truth: through that HE was born".

So, this is how the unborn Lord Rudra appears (takes birth) within the universe through Prajapati. After taking birth (appearance) he manifests into various forms which is stated below.

"ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā |
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva |"(Atharva veda X:8:7)
"Up, eastward downward in the west, 'it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied. With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?"

"tva.n strii pumaanasi tva.n kumaara uta vaa kumaarii |
tva.n jiirNo daNDena vaJNchasi tva.n jaato bhavasi vishvatomukhaH |" (Sve. Upa 4:03)
"Thou art woman, Thou art man; Thou art youth and maiden too. Thou as an old man totterest along on a staff; it is Thou alone who, when born, assumest diverse forms".

So, it is Lord Rudra who always assumes diverse forms inside the visible universe (Hiranyagarbha). These diverse forms includes creatures, as well as Gods. Nothing or none is different from Lord Rudra.

Lord Rudra only is the indweller of all these beings (creatures as well as Gods) as supported by following verses.

"devana hridayebhyo namah" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9)
"Salutations to Rudra who is the indweller / in the heart of all Gods"

"Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha
tasmai rudraya namo astu" (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
"The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage".

"sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |" (Sve Upa. 3:11)
"He dwells in the hearts of all beings".

Lord Rudra is the one who manifested as Agni, Sun and Moon. In this connection we have the following evidences from Atharva veda where the following verses are for Vratya (Rudra).

"yò 'sya prathamáḥ prāṇá ūrdhvó nā́māyáṃ só agníḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.3)
"His first vital breath, called Upward, is this Agni".
"yò 'sya dvitī́yaḥ prāṇáḥ práuḍho nā́māsáu sá ādityáḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.4)
"His second vital breath, called Mature, is that Āditya".
"yò 'sya tr̥tī́yaḥ prāṇò 'bhyū̀ḍho nā́māsáu sá candrámāḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.5)
"His third vital breath, called Approached, is that Moon".

"Asau yastamro aruna uta babhruh sumangalah Ye chemarudra abhito" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram - Anuvaka:1)
"This Sun who is copper-red when he arises, then golden-youllow, this highly auspicious and beneficent one is truly Rudra".

"anaahataakhya.n yachchakra.n dalaiH shhoDashabhiryutam.h |" (YogaKundalini Upanishad 69)
"It dries up the moisture produced by the moon in the Anahata-Chakra having sixteen petals".

So, from Lord Rudra himself manifested Agni, Moon and Sun. Hence they actually reflect the greatness of Rudra through themselves.

Let's move ahead.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-6 (B):

vidhartaaram havaamahe vasoH kuvidvanaati naH |
savitaara.n nR^ichakshasam.h | XII-6 (B)

MEANING:

XII-6 (B): We invoke the creator of the universe who sustains the creation in many ways and who witnesses the thoughts and deeds of men. May He grant us plenty of excellent wealth.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Let's see which God is called as Creator of the universe:

"sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu" - (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
"All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra we offer our salutations"

"vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu" - (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
"The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such".

Rig Veda 6:49:10 calls Lord Rudra as "bhuvanasya pitaram" means, "The Father of whole universe". Rig Veda 2:33:9 clearly calls Rudra as "īśānādasya bhuvanasya", which means "Ishana - the Lord of all worlds"

"jagatam pataye namo" which means, salutations to Rudra who is Lord of entire creation(jagat) - (Sri Rudram of Yaurveda - 2nd Anuvaka)

We have seen whom Vedas describe as Lord of Creation and Universe. The one lord - Rudra! Lord Rudra is not only the creator but he protects the universes also.

"...vishvaa bhuvanaani gopaaH |" (Sve. Upa 3.02)
"Protector of the universe".

"eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
"Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them".

Now it's clear that Rudra is the protector or care taking father of the universe. Now, let's see whom Vedas have prayed to seek wealth.

Sri Rudram Chamakam portion states it clearly that the Lord of Riches is Rudra alone. And hence Vedic hymns of Chamakam request time and again to Lord Rudra to shower proeprity, grace, fame, wealth, etc. on them. Here are few direct extarcts from Chamakam to support this point. "shreyashcha me vasyashcha me yashashcha me", "arthashcha me", "dhanam cha me". Also Mahabharata's Shiva sahasranama stotram calls lord Shiva by name "Om Ye Namah", meaning "Salutations to the lord who exists in the form of Lakshmi". So, goddess Lakshmi (Consort of Vishnu) is a manifestation of Lord Rudra alone.

So, this verse XII-6 (B) clearly prays to Lord Rudra only beyond doubt. Let's move ahead now.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-7:

ghR^itaM mimikshire ghR^itamasya yonirghR^ite shrito ghR^itamuvasya dhaama |
anushhvadhamaavaha maadayasva svaahaakR^ita.n vR^ishhabha vakshi havyam.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.2.7)

MEANING:

XII-7: The sacrificers poured clarified butter into the consecrated Fire. Clarified butter is the place of origin of this one and in clarified butter is his support. Indeed clarified butter is his luminant and residence. O Fire, with every offering of oblation bring here the gods and delight them. O thou excellent one, convey to gods the offerings we have made with Svaha.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-8:

samudraaduurmirmadhumaam udaaradupaamshunaa samamR^itatvamaanaT.h |
ghR^itasya naama guhya.n yadasti jihvaa devaanaamamR^itasya naabhiH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.2.8)

MEANING:

XII-8: From the Supreme Fount, vast as the ocean, arose the universe in the shape of waves yielding enjoyment to created beings. The name designating the self-luminous Reality and consisting of the syllable Om is hidden in the Vedas. By contemplating on the Supreme along with the slow repetition of that name one attains to immortality. This designation of the Supreme is on the lips of contemplative sages and it is the central support of undying bliss.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is again a praise of Lord Rudra alone. let's see the following verses which actually support this claim.

"aakraantsamudraH prathame vidharma~njanayanprajaa bhuvanasya raajaa |
vR^ishhaa pavitre adhi saano avye bRihatsomo vaavR^idhe suvaana induH |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.15.70)
"The Supreme represented as the ocean has overflown to the whole creation. He has created at first creatures according to the deserts of their various past deeds. He is the ruler of the universe and the munificent giver of gifts to the devotees. He dwells together with Uma (His power giving spiritual illumination) in the hearts of devotees which are holier than other parts of their body (the seat of the Divine) and therefore superior and elevated like a peak and affording protection. The Jiva who is his abode grows to be infinite. He is the Lord who delights the individual souls by guiding according to their deeds and conferring on them fruits of their actions".

Mantra of liberation is Pranava (OM) as stated below.

"mokshamantraH trayyaiva.n vadet.h . etadbrahmaitadupaasitavyam.h . evamevaitadbhagavanniti vai yaaj~navalkyaH |" (Jabala Upanishad 4:04)
"The mantra of liberation (namely ‘Om’) is (the essence of) the three Vedas; this he shall realize. It is Brahman and It is to be worshipped. Indeed,
so it is, O revered Yajnavalkya (said Janaka)".

Now from the below verses it becomes clear that Lord Rudra alone is the Mantra of liberation - OM.

"nama staraya" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-8)
"Salutations to Him (Rudra) who is the Pravana mantra; Om".

"atha kasmAduchyata o~NkAro yasmAduchchAryamANa eva
prANAnUrdhvamutkrAmayati tasmAduchyate o~NkAraH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:07)
"Rudra is called the personification of Pranva because he sends the souls towards heaven, at the time of death (dissolution)".

"atha kasmAduchyate praNavaH yasmAduchchAryamANa eva
R^igyajuHsAmAtharvA~Ngirasa.n brahma brAhmaNebhyaH praNAmayati
nAmayati cha tasmAduchyate praNavaH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:08)
"He is called the “one who has the shape of Pranava“, because the Brahmins read and propagate the Rik, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas only after reading 'OM'".

"atha kasmAduchyate tAra.n yasmAduchchAramANa eva
garbhajanmavyAdhijarAmaraNasa.nsAramahAbhayAttArayati trAyate
cha tasmAduchyate tAram.h |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:10)
"He is called “thara (protector)” because he protects one from the fear of life which consists of the fear of staying in the womb, fear at time of birth, fear from diseases, fear from old age and fear from death".

"umaasahaayaM parameshvaraM prabhuM trilochanaM niilakaNThaM prashaantam.h |
dhyaatvaa munirgachchhati bhuutayoniM samastasaakShiM tamasaH parastaat.h |" (Kaivalya Upanishad 7)
"Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya)".

""sa eva sarvaM yadbhuutaM yachcha bhavyaM sanaatanam.h |
j~naatvaa taM mR^ityumatyeti naanyaH panthaa vimuktaye |"(Kaivalya Upanishad 9)
"He alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal; knowing Him, one transcends death; there is no other way to liberation".

"yaH shataruudriyamadhiite so.agnipuuto bhavati suraapaanaatpuuto bhavati
sa brahmahatyaayaaH puuto bhavati sa suvarNasteyaatpuuto bhavati
sa kR^ityaakR^ityaatpuuto bhavati tasmaadavimuktamaashrito
bhavatyatyaashramii sarvadaa sakR^idvaa japet.h |" (Kaivalyopanishad 25)
"He who studies the Shatarudriya, is purified as by the Fires, is purified from the sin of drinking, purified from the sin of killing a Brahmana, from deeds done knowingly or unawares. Through this he has his refuge in Shiva, the Supreme Self. One who belongs to the highest order of life should repeat this always or once (a day)".

"anena j~naanamaapnoti sa.nsaaraarNavanaashanam.h . tasmaadevaM
viditvainaM kaivalyaM padamashnute kaivalyaM padamashnuta iti |" Kaivalopanishad 26)
"By means of this, one attains the Knowledge that destroys the ocean of Samsara or repeated transmigration. Therefore, knowing thus one attains the fruit of Kaivalya or liberation, verily one attains liberation".

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-9:

vaya.n naama prabravaamaa ghR^itenaasmin yaj~ne dhaarayaamaa namobhiH |
upa brahmaa shR^iNavachchhasyamaana chatuHshR^i~Ngo.avamiidgaura etat.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.2.9)

MEANING:

XII-9: May we always repeat in our contemplative sacrifices the designation Om which has for its cause the Self-luminous Reality and may we also hold Him in our hearts with salutations. The four-horned white Bull has expressed this Supreme Brahman praised by us in the hearing of co-seekers.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-10:

chatvaari shR^i~Ngaa trayo asya paadaa dveshiirshhe sapta hastaaso asya |
tridhaa baddho vR^ishhabho roraviiti maho devo martyaam aavivesha | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.2.10)

MEANING:

XII-10: The syllable Om conceived as the Bull possesses four horns, three feet and two heads. He has seven hands. This Bull connected in a threefold manner, eloquently declares the Supreme. The Self-luminous Deity has entered the mortals everywhere.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-11:

tridhaa hitaM paNibhirguhyamaana.n gavi devaaso ghR^itamanvavindan.h |
indra ekam suurya eka.n jajaana venaadekam svadhayaa nishhTatakshuH (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.3.11)

MEANING:

XII-11: God-like sages attained in the order (of their spiritual practices) the Self-luminous Reality laid in the three states of consciousness and secretly held by the teachers who praise it by chants in the Vedic speech (the great formulas such as ‘Thou art That’). Indra or Virat, the regent of the visible universe and the waking consciousness created one, the visible world. Surya representing Taijasa and Hiranyagarbha created one, namely, the world of dream, and from Vena came the remaining one, the dreamless sleep. By the self-supporting Paramatman all these threefold categories were fashioned.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

As per Advaita Vedanta Virat is the sumtotal of all gross bodies (Sthoola Deham), Hiranyagarbha is the totality of all subtle bodies (Sookshma Deham / Linga Deham), and Eshwara is the sum total of all causal bodies (Karana Deham). These three states can be visualized in terms of the three stages of conciousness, Jagrut (Wakefulness), Swapna (dream), Sushupti (Sleep), and also there are two more called Turiya and Samadhi. Alll these three stages of conciousness is Shiva only. Shiva is higher than Virat, and Hiranyagarbha. Lord SHiva is the Brahman of Vedas. 'Brahman' word being a derivative of the root word 'brihat' which means vast, it's Lord Shiva only whom Vedas call as 'Brihat' (namo brihate cha - in Sri Rudram from Yajurveda).

We have seen numerous times the references that from Lord SHiva emerged Hiranyagarbha, Vena (noon Sun), Aditya, Indra et al. So, we needn't repeat the same exercise here. It is understood clearly that Lord Rudra transcends all these elements which represent each stage of conciousness as specified in this verse XII-11.

It is lord Rudra who sports in the three cities (three stages of conciousness). He is beyond the three stages of conciousness also. he is Brahman hence he is Turiya and Samadhi as well. Let's see some references and move on to next verse.

"puratraye kriiDati yashcha jiivastatastu jaataM sakalaM vichitram.h |
aadhaaramaanandamakhaNDabodhaM yasmi.NllayaM yaati puratrayaM cha |" (Kaivalyopanishad 14)
"Again, through his connection with deeds done in previous births, that very Jiva returns to the dream-state, or the waking state. The being who sports in the three cities (viz., the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep) – from Him has sprung up all diversity. He is the substratum, the bliss, the indivisible Consciousness, in whom the three cities dissolve themselves".

The above verse talks about the supreme God as the one who sports in the three cities. But who that God is? That answer is given in same upanishad in the following verse.

"umaasahaayaM parameshvaraM prabhuM trilochanaM niilakaNThaM prashaantam.h |
dhyaatvaa munirgachchhati bhuutayoniM samastasaakShiM tamasaH parastaat.h |" (Kaivalyopanishad 7)
"Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya)".

In maitreya upanishad Lord Shiva himself states that he is Brahman the source of all:

"ahamasmi parashchaasmi brahmaasmi prabhavo.asmyaham.h |
sarvalokagurushchaami sarvaloke.asmi so.asmyaham.h |" (Maitreya Upanishad 3:01)
"I am I, I am the other (the supreme one), I am Brahman, I am the source (of all), I am also the Guru of all the worlds, I am all the worlds, That I am".

Hence it should be clear enough that Bhagawan Rudra is the Brahman from where Virat, Hiranyagarbha also manifest and they are not different from him also. He himself is all the stages of conciousness and sports in the three cities and he destroys these three cities (Tripurari) and gives Kaivalya to the spiritual aspirant who attains the Brahmajnanam.


Maha Narayanopanishad XII-12:

yo devaanaaM prathamaM purastaadvishvaadhiko rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbhaM pashyata jaayamaanam sa no devaH shubhayaasmR^ityaa sa.nyunaktu | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.3.12)

MEANING

XII-12: May He, the Lord, join us with beneficial remembrance – He who is superior to all, who has been revealed in the Vedas, who is the Supreme Seer and who sees Hiranyagarbha who is the first among the gods and who is born before all the rest.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Atharvasiras upanishad clearly states that Lord Shiva is supreme. It says that nothing in past was ever greater than him nor can ever be in future.

"yasminnida.n sarvamotaprota.n tasmAdanyanna para.n ki~nchanAsti |
na tasmAtpUrva.n na para.n tadasti na bhUta.n nota bhavya.n yadAsIt.h |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:05)
"There is none greater than him, on whom all the worlds are strung like beads. Over ages, nothing so far in the past was ever greater than him and nothing is going to be greater than him in future".

"na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |" (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
"There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge".

"na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |"(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
"There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord".

So, it's clear from above verses that there is nothing superior to Lord Rudra. he is the supreme. Now we'll see in below verse that it is lord Rudra alone who gave birth to Hiranyagarbha at the beginning.

"yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu" (Sve Upa. 3:4)
"He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!"

Therefore, this verse XII-12 clearly is a praise to lord Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-13:

yasmaatpara.n naaparamasti ki~nchit yasmaannaaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^iksha iva stabdho divi tishhThatyekastenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.3.13)

MEANING:

XII-13: Other than whom there is nothing higher, nothing minuter, nothing greater, by that Purusha – the One who stands still like a tree established in heaven – all this is filled.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is same as what is mentioned in Sveytaswatara Upanishad 3:09. It clearly is about lord Rudra only since Veda Purusha is Lord Rudra only (purusho vai rudrah - as exclaimed by Yajurveda).

This point has been discussed earlier also, and there is no confusion on this since Sve. Upa. 3:09 clearly applies this verse as Rudra. Let's move to the next verse.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-14:

na karmaNaa na prajayaa dhanena tyaagenaike amR^itatvamaanashuH |
pareNa naaka.n nihita.n guhaayaaM bibhraajate yadyatayo vishanti | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.3.14)

MEANING:

XII-14: Not by work, not by progeny, not by wealth, they have attained Immortality. Some have attained Immortality by renunciation. That which the hermits attain is laid beyond the heaven; yet it shines brilliantly in the (purified) heart.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-15:

vedaantavij~naanavinishchitaarthaaH sa.nnyaasayogaadyatayaH shuddhasattvaaH |
te brahmaloke tu paraantakaale paraamR^itaaH parimuchyanti sarve | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.3.15)

MEANING:

XII-15: Having attained the Immortality consisting of identity with the Supreme, all those aspirants who strive for self-control, who have rigorously arrived at the conclusion taught by the Vedanta through direct knowledge, and who have attained purity of mind through the practice of the discipline of yoga and steadfastness in the knowledge of Brahman preceded by renunciation, get themselves released into the region of Brahman at the dissolution of their final body.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Identity with the Supreme (Brahman) is called Sayujyam, or Kaivalya. This is the only real Moksha. Speacking in Vedantic sense, there is nothing called as getting Moksha. Liberation becoms an entity to achieve if we are bonded. But the "self" is itself the 'Brahman'. And it only takes us to realize our true self to be Brahman. Once realization is gained through Brahmajnanam, we become Jeevan-mukta in the very same life itself. For this to happen one need to understand and assimilate the Vedanta wisdom in herself. Other paths to attaining Brahmajnanam is Yoga. Kundalini Yoga is the best and practical way to realize that we are Brahman. As per Vedanta and Yoga only through 'Jnana' (divine wisdom) one can attain salvation. Other means only lead towards that.

For the people who follow the path of devotion, as per vedas if we go, they have only one last resort - The Mahadeva! Only Lord Shiva can grant them Sayujyam. Maha Mrityunjay Mantram and Sri Rudram Anuvaka-8 requests only lord Shiva to grant liberation. In all the Vedas only Lord Shiva has been asked to grant liberation since he is the Brahman of Vedas, he is the Purusha of Vedas, hence he only can make impossible possible for his devotees. So, it's he only who can deliver the devotees from the ocean of samsaara and merge in himself.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-16:

dahra.n vipaapa.n varaveshmabhuuta yat puNDariikaM puramadhyasamstham.h |
tatraapi dahre gagana.n vishoka.n tasmin yadantastadupaasitavyam.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.3.16)

MEANING:

XII-16: In the citadel of the body there is the small sinless and pure lotus of the heart which is the residence of the Supreme. Further in the interior of this small area there is the sorrowless Ether. That is to be meditated upon continually.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

In the hearts of every creature and gods reside only the Supreme Bhagwan Rudra as we had studied the same through references previously. Here I would like to detail out the same point through another mode - Shat-Chakra Yoga!

Our body has 7 chakras (energy shells) out of them the lower 6 are collectively termed as Shat-Chakras and the seventh one is called 'Sahasrara Chakra'. From bottom to top the chakras are Mooladhara, Swadhishthana, Manipooraka, Anahata, Vishudha, Ajneya, Sahasrara.

Out of them ‘Anahata Chakram’ is the 4th chakra which is seated above the ‘Manipooraka’ at a distance of 10 fingers exactly near the heart (‘Hrudaya Sthanam’) shines brilliantly with Yellow color, consists of 12 petals and is the place of origination of all sentences (‘Samasta Vakyodhbhava Sthanam’). It is of the form of ‘Va’ consonant (its ‘mantram’ is ‘Va’) and has 12 petals by names, ‘Ka’, ‘kha’, ‘Ga’, ‘Gha’, ‘Inya’, ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’,’ Jha’, ‘Nya’,’Ta’, ‘Tha’.
It is the place of ‘Vayu’ (‘Vayushthana’). It is ‘Tvakindriya karanam’ (twak is one of the indriyas) and remains in the form of a ‘Lingam’ (Lingakruti’). Lord ‘Rudra’ is the ‘Adhishthana Devata’ (Ruling/owning deity) of this chakra and here ‘Chara Lingam’ remains together with ‘Beejashakti’ (seed power). In 16 minutes and 40 seconds 6000 ‘Paramahamsa japam’ occurs here.

So, we have seen that the Hridayam (heart) is the residing place of Lord Rudra, heart being the position where Anahata chakram resides. So, we have seen that even when we went by the Kundalini Yoga concept for a change (unlike earlier where we used to see verses from Vedas, upanishads), then also we have landed into the same reality which says the supreme God who resides in heart is Lord Rudra.

Maha Narayanopanishad XII-17:

yo vedaadau svaraH prokto vedaante cha pratishhThitaH |
tasya prakR^itiliinasya yaH paraH sa maheshvaraH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.3.17)

MEANING:

XII-17: He is the Supreme Lord (Maheshwarah) who transcends the syllable Om which is uttered at the commencement of the recital of the Vedas, which is well established in the Upanishads and which is dissolved in the primal cause during contemplation.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is clearly a verse to Maheshwarah, so it doesn't require further elaboration. But still let's see the similar verses briefly.

Adi Shankaracharya composed a hymn to Lord Shiva called as 'Para Puja Stotram'. In that hymn he mentions the same thing saying Lord Shiva is known by the Vedas and also transcends them. So, he expresss his inability to do stuti to Lord Shiva. IThe verses go as follows:

"Pradakshina hyananthasya hyadwayasya kutho nathi |
Veda vakhyair vedhyasya kutha sthothram vidheeyathe |" (Parapuja Stotram 7)
"How can I offer him circumambulation, When he is infinite without end and induplicable? How can I praise with words of Vedas, When he himself are the words of the Vedas? (it can also be translated as one who is beyond the scope of the vedas)".

Similarly Upanishads also speak so high about Lord Shiva as follows.

"yasminnida.n sarvamotaprota.n tasmAdanyanna para.n ki~nchanAsti |
na tasmAtpUrva.n na para.n tadasti na bhUta.n nota bhavya.n yadAsIt.h |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:05)
"There is none greater than him, on whom all the worlds are strung like beads. Over ages, nothing so far in the past was ever greater than him and nothing is going to be greater than him in future".

"na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |" (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
"There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge".

"na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |"(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
"There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord".

Maha Narayanopanishad XIII-1-3:

sahasrashiirshha.n deva.n vishvaaksha.n vishvashambhuvam.h |
vishva.n naaraayaNa.n devamaksharaM paramaM prabhum.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.1.1)
vishvataH parama.n nitya.n vishva.n naaraayaNam harim.h |
vishvamevedaM purushhastadvishvamupajiivati | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.1.2)
pati.n vishvasyaatmeshvaram shaashvatam shivamachyutam.h |
naaraayaNaM mahaaj~neya.n vishvaatmaanaM paraayaNam.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.1.3)

MEANING:

XIII-1-3: This universe is truly the Divine Person only. Therefore it subsists on Him – the self-effulgent Divine Being – who has many heads and many eyes, who is the producer of joy for the universe, who exists in the form of the universe, who is the master and the cause of humanity, whose forms are the various gods, who is imperishable, who is the all-surpassing ruler and saviour, who is superior to the world, who is endless and omniform, who is the goal of humanity, who is the destroyer of sin and ignorance, who is the protector of the universe and the ruler of individual souls, who is permanent, supremely auspicious and unchanging, who has embodied Himself in man as his support (being the indwelling Spirit), who is supremely worthy of being known by the creatures, who is embodied in the universe and who is the supreme goal.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is the specific verse which is the most commonly misinterpretted or misunderstood. It requires a detailed commentary here. Actually it would be difficult to explain this concept verse by verse since the next few verses of this Upanishad also are related to this concept of Narayana. So, we can understand this Tatwam in detail here and in subsequent sections we can discuss the relevant portions briefly or point the reader to refer to this commentary.

The word 'Narayana' in Vedas and also in Shankara's works and commentaries do not mean the God Narayana (Vishnu) having four hands. 'Narayana' in Vedas is another epithet used to describe the Nirguna-Brahman who is the divine light (Brahma Jyoti). Narayana which represents the Nirguna-Brahman is none other than Shiva (who is the Veda Purusha). 'Purusha' is the infinite 'conciousness', the infinite Pillar of Jwala Linga (Skhambha the fire Linga), Purusha is the 'self', the Nirguna Brahman.

The way the word 'Purusha' is misinterpretted as having a form (man like) similarly the word 'Narayana' is also misinterpretted as being Vishnu. Of course the Puranas call Vishnu as Narayana based on the meaning Nara+Ayana (Water+Sleeping). However there is no correlation of Nirguna Brahman with Vishnu. The Vedic Narayana who is called supreme is only the Nirguna Brahman, the Purusha, the Lord Shiva.

Then why did this verse refer to Shiva (in Nirguna form) as Narayana? The answer is Vedas love to express things metaphorically. This verse actually refers to Shiva from his 'Shakti' aspect. We'll have to take a note of the following points before discussing anything further. These points are the highlights of the section XIII which all are related to this discussion on Narayana.

1. Narayana is Brahman and has thousand heads (XIII-4)
2. Narayana is the supreme Light (XIII-4)
3. Narayana is the self (XIII-4)
4. Everything is pervaded by Narayana within and without (XIII-5)
5. The Supreme (Narayana) dwells in one's heart (XIII-6)
6. Heart is the great abode of the universe which shines like fire (XIII-7)
7. In heart or near it there is a narrow space (called Susumna). In it everything is supported. (XIII-8)
9. In the middle of Susumna remains the undecaying, all-knowing, omnifaced, great Fire, which has flames on every side, the rays of which spread scattering themselves vertically and horizontally, and which warms its own body from the insole to the crown. (XIII-9-11)
9. Paramatman dwells in the middle of that flame. He is the four-faced creator, Siva, Vishnu (Hari), Indra, the material and efficient cause of the Universe and the Supreme Self-luminous Pure Consciousness. (XIII-12)

I suggest the readers to read the 9 points carefully. The gist of those points is -

Narayana is the Brahman who is the self (Atman), who is the supreme light which shines like fire and travels through the Sushumna nadi from bottom (mooladhara) to top (crown-Sahasrara) and in that flame of Sushumna the Paramatma dwells, that Nirguna Paramatma is the one who takes the Saguna forms like Shiva, Vishnu, Indra et al.

Before discussing the serious points let's touch upon the lighter points presented above. Narayana is called as Brahman having thousand heads only in this section. All other sections and all Vedic/Upanishadic verses we had seen so far all refer Shiva as Brahman, they call Shiva only as having thousand heads (Sahasraseersha Sahasrapaath). The same yajurveda from where this verse on Narayana is obtained same Yajurveda states the following about the Brahman of vedas. So, it is clear that Narayana is just an epithet metaphorically used here to refer to Shiva (or Shakti both being same).

"R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
"Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness and Truth, is the androgynous Person the Umamaheshvara, dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste and possessing uncommon eyes. Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe or whose form is the universe".

Further this section states that Narayana is the self. But we have ample references which states that Shiva is the Self. Hence again the word 'Narayana' here refers to the Shiva only. One reference is given below.

"deho devaalayaH proktaH sa jiivaH kevalaH shivaH |" (Maitreya Upanishad 2:1)
"The body is said to be the temple; the individual Self (Jiva) is Shiva alone".

Another verse says everything is pervaded by Narayana within and without. But this all pervasive attribute has been numerous times stated in Vedas only for lord Shiva. Here this is the only one place where metaphorically word 'Narayana' is used to speak about the same Shiva. Let's see one example in support of Shiva filling everything with his pervasiveness. The below verse clarifies that lord Shiva pervades in between all gods also.

"sarvamidaM brahmaviShNurudrendrAste saMprasUyante sarvANi chendriyANi saha bhUtairna kAraNa.n kAraNAnA.n dhyAtA kAraNa.n tu dhyeyaH sarvaishvaryasaMpannaH shaMbhurAkAshamadhye dhruva.n" (Atharvashikha Upanishad 2.2)
"Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra (deity of destruction) and Indra are creating all beings, all organs and all karanas. They are also capable of controlling them. But Lord Shiva exists in between them like sky and is permanently stable".

Now let's visit the complex portions now.

A person who has ever read the Kundalini Yoga or understands that Shat-Chakra theory would have udnerstood by this time that this Narayana is nothing but the Kundalini Shakti. Kundalini Yoga says that the Shakti called Kundalini which traverses through the 6 shells through the nerves called Ida, Pingala and unites in Sushumna and reaches the Crown that Shakti is none other than Lalita Maha Tripurasundari Devi the consort of Lord Sadashiva. Tripurasundari and Sadashiva are 'Para parai', and 'Para param' means they are Aruparoopi, beyond the Para stage. This entire Kundalini Yoga is an excercise to unite the Nirguna Shakti with her consort Shiva (who resides in Sahasrara in Nirguna form). The Kundalini which pierces through each chakra is of the form of flame, it is the divine supreme light, it is the Paramatman, also called as Parama-Hamsa in Kundalini Yoga terminology. This Parama-Hamsa is again Shiva-Shakti in union. Hamsa is composed of two syllables 'Ham', and 'Sa', united with a bindu. When the Yogi wants to raise his Kundalini, he reverses the breathing rhythm through Pranayama and then this Ham-Sa, becomes 'So-Ham (Means Sa+Aham - implies I am That). This is a practical yogic technique to realize the self.

In Kundalini tantra the Kundalini is female the Shakti aspect, the supreme lord Shiva in Nirguna form as light (as Sadashiva) remains seated in Sahasrara chakra. This Shakti unites herself with Shiva in that Sahasrara which results in self realization (revealation of 'Shivoham' tatwam). In fact all the 6 chakras are pervaded by lord Shiva in various forms of lings and Shakti in her avrious forms. here is a brief snapshot of the chakras and the existence of lingas and corresponding shaktis.

I. Mooladhara - Here Adhara Lingam remains together with Iccha Shakti
II. Svadhishthana - Here Guru Lingam remains together with Kriya Shakti
III. Manipooraka - Here Shivalingam remains in together with Gyana Skahti
IV. Anahata - Here Chara Lingam remains together with Beejashakti
V. Vishuddha - Here Prasada Lingam remains together with Adi Shakti
VI. Ajneya - Here Mahalingam remains together with ParaShakti
VII. Sahasrara - Here Omkaralingam remains together with Jyotirmayi

People who have learnt or read or know Kundalini concepts they would agree that it's a fact that there is nothing except Shiva-Shakti's play in the entire Kundalini concept. Kundalini is Tripurasundari the consort of Paramashiva.

Then a question maya rise, if the Shakti which traverses through Sushumna is Tripurasundari the Supreme Brahman represented as female and consort of Shiva then why it is described under the names 'Narayana' and 'Hari'. The answer is simple. It is a metaphoric description. People who like poetry they might understand it easily that when two different entities (which are totally different) if have any one symbolic commnality between them a poet tries to equate them using metaphors (indirect comparison). E.g., If someone says, "My anger is burning my self as like as hanuman burnt entire Lanka". here we can understand that Anger is a quality it is not fire. It can't be seen, it can only be experienced. But fire is something which can be seen, and it is not at all related to anger. But the narrater here equated metaphorically these two since he feels the same heat of wrath which exists in fire.

Let me give a perfect metaphorical example from scriptures. Our daily prayers include one prayer to the palm as, "Karaagre vasate lakshmi Karamadhye Saraswati Karamoole Govinda.h |". Surface thinkers wouldn't be able to explain if you ask, 'Lakshmi and Givinda are couple that's understood but what is Saraswati doing there in between them?'. This is a classic example of surface thinking vs. Tatwa Jnanam.
This prayer is also metaphorical in nature and carries a deep meaning. Parvati and Govinda are of same Tatwam. they are of same form, qualities and complexion also. They are called as siblings in scriptures due to having same nature/tatwam. Hence that verse actually means, "Karaagre vasate lakshmi Karamadhye Saraswati Karamoole Ambaa |". But this is also not the root meaning. It carries another refined meaning. Scriptures call Saraswati as 'Shivanuja (Sister of Shiva)', Similarly lakshmi is also Soma-Sahodari (sister of Soma=Sa+Uma=Shiva). Hence both lakshmi and Saraswati being Shiva's sisters carry the same tatwam as like as Shiva in them. That means Lakshmi, Saraswati both can be understood as Shiva's form/tatwam. Also, we know that Govinda and Parvati are of same form and tatwam; interchanging the deities based on their tatwams we get to a conclusion, "Karagree cha Karamadhye tishtantam Shiva Karamoole Vasati Ambaa |", this means the base of the palm is Bhavani and the rest of the palm is Shiva. Now stretch your palm upright and open your thumb stretching it to make the entrie arrangement as 'L-shaped'. This is the actual meaning of that verse. In the 'L-Shape' of one's palm we can visualize Shiva-Linga in it. The base of the palm till the L-Shaped thumb finger is the Peetha (base of Shiva linga) and the erect four fingers together with the stem of the palm compose the upright-Linga. This is the deepest root meaning of that verse which conveys the oneness of Shiva-Shakti everywhere through the Linga symbol.

This kind of metaphors are common in any literature, ancient or modern. Where surface thinking fails to explain concepts, their Tatwa Jnanam solves the puzzle!

Therefore in the current context it has to be understood that Vishnu and Devi(Uma) have similar feature and they are of same tatwam. Hence scriptures metaphorically equate them many times. They are basically of same form and tatwam hence they are called as siblings also in various scriptures (Bhava-Bhavani are couple, Lakshmi-Narayana are couple, Shiva-Shivani refers to again couple but wherever scriptures mention Narayana-Narayani they are always siblings. That's the beauty of the relation shared by Narayana and Parvati). But that's just an exaggeration. In fact Vishnu is born from Shiva hence he is like a son to Uma and Shiva. But it can be understood that he is born with the qualities of Uma hence he is mostly 'equated' with Uma. And since Uma became Krishna's sister (yashoda's daughter) in Dwapara, they are directly equated as siblings later on. We have the following references to support this claim.

"namo girishaya cha shipivishhtaya cha |" (Anuvaka 5)
"Salutations to Him who dwells on the mount and who is in the form of Shipivista (Vishnu)".

Rig Veda IX.96.5 states that SOMA(Sa+Uma=Shiva) is the father of Vishnu.

"vishhNorjanaka.n devamiiDyaM" (Sharabha Upansiahd 1-2)
"who is the father of Vishnu and other devas".

"rudraatpravartate biijaM biijayonirjanaardanaH |" (Rudra Hridayopanishad 8)
"Rudra is the generator of the seed. Vishnu is the embryo of the seed".

"umaa sha~Nkarayogo yaH sa yogo vishhNuruchyate |" (Rudra Hridayopanishad 11)
"The combination of Uma and Sankara is Vishnu".

"kaarya.n vishhNuH kriyaa brahmaa kaaraNa.n tu maheshvaraH |
prayojanaartha.n rudreNa muurtirekaa tridhaa kR^itaa |" (Rudra Hridayopanishad 15)
"The effect is Vishnu. The action is Brahma. The cause is Maheshwara. For the benefit of the worlds. Rudra has taken these three forms".

From the above verses we are clear that Vishnu is generated by Uma-Shiva and hence he is their son (also their form). But now in below verses we'll understand that Vishnu who is the son of Uma has Uma's attributes hence they are equated and called as one in terms of Tatwam.

"yaa umaa saa svaya.n vishhNur" (Rudra Hridayopanishad 5)
"Uma Herself is in the form of Vishnu"

Same thing is represented in another way by Adi Shankara said in Shivananda Lahari as,

"Ardha vapusha baryatwam, Gonithwam sakkhitha..." (Shivananda Lahari Para-82)
"Lord Vishnu occupied half your body, Became transformed to be your wife (PARVATI), Became a boar to search for you, Became your lady friend to serve the nectar (MOHINI)"

Rudra Hridaya Upanishad and Shivananda Lahari says Vishnu and UMA are of same form (they are same). Sharabha Upanishad and Rudra Hridayopanishad, Rig Veda.IX.96.5 says Vishnu is Shiva's and Uma's son. Sri Rudram says Shiva exists as Vishnu. Hence comparing these points we can conclude here that Vishnu is Shiva's form (son) having UMA's features hence UMA and Vishnu are shown as identical but since Uma manifested as Yashoda's daughter Yogamaya as a ssiter of Krishna she is popularly called as Vishnu's sister. Also, since Parvati (Uma's manifestation) is dark complexioned as like as Vishnu she is seen as having same Tatwam as Vishnu hence she is again called as Narayana-Sahodari / Narayani in scriptures. Vishnu and Uma are not different they are one being of the nature of siblings. But this is just a bond, but in reality Shiva-Shakti are non-dual. They created Vishnu, so Vishnu is Uma's son as Annapoorna Astpttara Shatanamavali also calls her as, "Vishnu Jananyai Namah".

With that above analysis it must have become clear what way Narayana (Vishnu) and Narayani (Parvati) are equated. That being said, it should be udnerstood that the Kundalini whom this Mahanarayanopanishad XIII-1-11 describe as Narayana is infact Shakti (Uma) only in her Nirguna form. And she unites with her Paramatma, her consort in Sahasrara chakra. But again Shakti and Shiva are never different. They are same. they share same body hence they are Ardhanareeshwara. Thus, the Kundalini which traverses through the Sushumna is Shakti but it is not different from Shiva hence one can say that the Kundalini is Shiva himself. Also, the Kundalini brilliance is obtained by retaining the seminal fluid. It is the seminal fluid power. So, the Seminal fluid is called Brahman also. We'll visit some supporting verses on all these points now.

The below verse clearly says that the supreme light is Rudra (So, the Narayana(Uma) whom we read as supreme light is actually the Rudra in Nirguna form).

"yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachcha tejastasmai vai namonamaH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:19)
"He who is Rudra, he alone is god. He is te Supreme Light and we salute him again and again".

The below verse clarifies about the supreme light (Brahman) as being the seminal fluid power (kundalini).

"tasyottarataH shiro dakShiNataH pAdau ya uttarataH sa o~NkAraH ya o~NkAraH sa praNavaH yaH praNavaH sa sarvavyApI yaH sarvavyApI so.anantaH
yo.anantastattAra.n yattAra.n tatsUkShma.n tachChukla.n
yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM
brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya
IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
"The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. Its feet are on your right side. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava(primeval sound). That Pranava is spread everywhere. That which is everywhere is the greatest. That which is limitless, shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also Eeshana (the form of Lord Shiva with tuft and riding on a bull), it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things".

The below verse is spoken by lord SHiva himself. He clearly says that he resides inside the lotus like heart of everyone.

"yatki~nchidapi hiino.asmi svalpamapyati naasmyaham.h |
hR^idayagranthihiino.asmi hR^idayaambhojamadhyagaH |" Maitreya Upanishad 3:17)
"I am not devoid of even the least, nor am I a little. I am without the knot of the heart (i.e. partiality due to affection) and I abode in the midst of the lotus of the heart".

The below verse is also spoken by Lord Shiva and it makes clear who is the supreme light descibed in Vedas.

"sarvaprakaasharuupo.asmi chinmaatrajyotirasmyaham.h |
kaalatrayavimukto.asmi kaamaadirahito.asmyaham.h |" Maitreya Upanishad 3:21)
"I am present as the Supreme Light and all forms of effulgence, I am the effulgence of pure consciousness. I am beyond the three durations (past, present and future) and I am free from passion, etc".

The below verses is a direct hit on the bull's eye. It states clearly who is the one who traverses through Sushumna nadi. These explain clearly the Kundalini Yoga related details about Shiva-Shakti.

"ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |
tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |" (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
"Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings. Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world".

"praNavena samutthApya shrIbIjena nivartayet.h |
svAtmAna.n cha shriya.n dhyAyedamR^itaplAvana.n tathA |" (varaha Upanishad 5:34)
"Having closed the anus and drawn up the Vayu and caused it to rise through (the repetition of) Pranava (Om), he should complete with Sri Bija. He should contemplate upon his Atman as Sri (or Parasakti) and as being bathed by nectar".

Note that here in above verse Shri does not refer to Lakshmi devi. The original Shri (Shrimata) is goddess Tripurasundari Devi the consort of Shiva. From her potency of Shriyam has manifested the secondary goddess Sridevi (lakshmi) the consort of Vishnu. Lalitha Sahasranama Stotram from Brahmanda Purana can be referred to understand who is Shrimata, and who is her form Shridevi.

"gudameDhrAntarAlasthaM mUlAdhAra.n trikoNakam.h |
shivasya bindurUpasya sthAna.n taddhi prakAshakam.h |" Varaha Upanishad 5:50)
"In the centre of the anus and the genitals, there is the triangular Muladhara. It illumines the seat of Shiva of the form of Bindu".

"yatra kuNDalinI nAma parA shaktiH pratiShThitA |
yasmAdutpadyate vAyuryasmAdvahniH pravardhate |" (Varaha Upanishad 5:51)
"There is located the Parasakti named Kundalini. From that seat, Vayu arises. From that seat, Agni becomes increased".

"yasmAdutpadyate binduryasmAnnAdaH pravardhate |
yasmAdutpadyate ha.nso yasmAdutpadyate manaH |" (Varaha Upanishad 5:52)
"From that seat, Bindu originates and Nada becomes increased. From that seat, Hamsa is born. From that seat, Manas is born".

"mUlAdhArAdiShaTchakra.n shaktisthAnamudIritam.h |
kaNThAdupari mUrdhAnta.n shAMbhava.n sthAnamuchyate |" (Varaha Upanishad 5:53)
"The six Chakras beginning with Muladhara are said to be the seat of Sakti (Goddess). From the neck to the top of the head is said to be the seat of Sambhu (Shiva)".

"nADInAmAshrayaH piNDo nADyaH prANasya chAshrayaH |
jIvasya nilayaH prANo jIvo ha.nsasya chAshrayaH |" (Varaha Upanishad 5:54)
"To the Nadis, the body is the support (or vehicle); to Prana, the Nadis are the support; to Jiva, Prana is the dwelling place; to Hamsa, Jiva is the support".

"ha.nsaH shakteradhiShThAna.n charAcharamida.n jagat.h |
nirvikalpaH prasannAtmA prANAyA.n samabhyaset.h |" (Varaha Upanishad 5:55)
"To Sakti, Hamsa is the seat and the locomotive and fixed universe. Being without distraction and of a calm mind, one should practise Pranayama".

"kumbhena kumbhayetkumbha.n tadantasthaH para.n shivam.h |
punarAsphAlayedadya susthira.n kaNThamudrayA |" (Varaha Upanishad 5:60)
"It is only through Kumbhaka that Kumbhaka should be firmly mastered. Within it is Parama-Shiva. That (Vayu) which is non-motionless should be shaken again through Kantha-Mudra (throat-posture)".

"prakR^ityashhTakaruupa.n cha sthaana.n gachchhati kuNDalii |
kroDiikR^itya shiva.n yaati kroDiikR^itya viliiyate |" (YogaKundalini Upanishad 1:74)
Kundalini assumes the eight forms of Prakriti (matter) and attains Shiva by encircling him and dissolves itself in Shiva".

"ityadhordhvarajaH shukla.n shive tadanu maarutaH |
praaNaapaanau samau yaati sadaa jaatau tathaiva cha |" (YogaKundalini Upanishad 1:75)
"Thus Rajas-Sukla (seminal fluid) which rises up goes to Shiva along with Marut (Vayu); Prana and Apana which are always produced become equal".

"rudragranthi.n cha bhittvaiva kamalaani bhinatti shhaT.h |
sahasrakamale shaktiH shivena saha modate
saivaavasthaa paraa j~neyaa saiva nirvR^itikaariNii iti |" (YogaKundalini Upanishad 1:86)
"Then it pierces Rudragranthi, after that, (all) the six lotuses (or plexuses). Then Sakti is happy with Shiva in Sahasrara Kamala (1000 lotuses seat or pineal gland). This should be known as the highest Avastha (state) and it alone is the giver of final beatitude".

Any person who is intelligent would have understood by now that the 'Narayana' mentioned in this Upanishad is Shiva-Shakti and not the Vishnu as traditionally thought of. Let's proceed ahead now.

Maha Narayanopanishad XIII-4:

naaraayaNaH paraM brahma tattva.n naaraayaNaH paraH |
naaraayaNaH paro jyotiraatmaa naarayaNaH paraH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.1.4)

MEANING:

XIII-4: Narayana is the Supreme Reality designated as Brahman. Narayana is the highest (Self). Narayana is the supreme Light (described in the Upanishads). Narayana is the infinite Self. [Narayana is the most excellent meditator and meditation.]

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Refer to previous section's (XIII 1-3) commentary. We have already analyzed and understood that the supreme self (Jiva), Supreme Reality and Brahman (Ritam, Satyam, Parabrahman), and Supreme light all are Shiva only whom this verse metaphorically calls as Narayana, but in absolute order of reality this verse applies on Shiva. There is no Vishnu (Narayana) in it in reality. The following verses clearly explains that there is no Tatwam beyond lord Rudra. There is no cause behind Rudra, but Rudra is the cause of all causes.

"yasminnida.n sarvamotaprota.n tasmAdanyanna para.n ki~nchanAsti |
na tasmAtpUrva.n na para.n tadasti na bhUta.n nota bhavya.n yadAsIt.h |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:05)
"There is none greater than him, on whom all the worlds are strung like beads. Over ages, nothing so far in the past was ever greater than him and nothing is going to be greater than him in future".

"na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |" (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
"There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge".

"na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |"(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
"There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord".

So, it's clear from above verses that there is nothing superior to Lord Rudra. He is the supreme. Hence this verse XIII-4 is a praise to Lord Shiva applied on him mataphorically through the usage of epithet 'Narayana'. Please refer to commentary of section XIII 1-3 to understand the entire picture.

Let's move ahead.

Maha Narayanopanishad XIII-5:

naaraayaNaH paro dhyaataa dhyaana.n naaraayaNaH paraH |
yachcha kiJNchijjagatyasmin dR^ishyate shruuyate.api vaa | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.1.5)
antarbahishcha tatsarva.n vyaapya naaraayaNaH sthitaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.5)

MEANING:

XIII-5: Whatsoever there is in this world known through perception (because of their proximity) or known through report (because of their distance), all that is pervaded by Narayana within and without.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

In previous section XIII 1-3 where we had a very detailed commentary, from Atharvashika Upanishad's verse we had seen a reference that Lord Shiva pervades blanketing Brahma, Indra, and Vishnu also. So, the Narayana in this verse doesn't refer to Vishnu it refers to Shiva. Further on the 'Param' aspect, there is none superior to Shiva. The below verses are spoken by lord Shiva about himself:

"paramo.asmi paraatparaH" (Maitreya Upa. 3:10)
"I am the supreme, greater than the great".

"shaanto.asmi purushhottamaH" (Maitreya Upa. 3:10)
"I am quiescence, the greatest being (Purushottama)"

Hence this verse XIII-5 indirectly eulogizes Lord Shiva only. Refer to detailed analysis in section XIII 1-3.

Maha Narayanopanishad XIII-6:

anantamavyaya.n kavim samudre.anta.n vishvashambhuvam.h |
padmakoshapratiikaasham hR^idaya.n chaapyadhomukham.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.6)

MEANING:

XIII-6: One should meditate upon the Supreme – the limitless, unchanging, all-knowing, cause of the happiness of the world, dwelling in the sea of one’s own heart, as the goal of all striving. The place for His meditation is the ether in the heart – the heart which is comparable to an inverted lotus bud.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Not required to repeat the commentary again. This point has been covered in previous sections as a part fo the detailed commentary in section XIII 1-3.

Maha Narayanopanishad XIII-7:

adho nishhTyaa vitastyaante naabhyaamupari tishhThati |
hR^idaya.n tadvijaaniiyaadvishvasyaayatanaM mahat.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.7) // This second part of the verse is only in Maha-Narayanopanishat not in Aranyaka. Only slight difference exists. So adding below verse from Aranyaka.
Jvaalamaalaakulam Bhaati vishvasyaayatanaM mahat.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.7) // This verse is in Taiitiriya Aranyaka

MEANING:

XIII-7: It should be known that the heart which is located just at the distance of a finger span below the Adam's apple and above the navel is the great abode of the universe which shines like fire.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

A detailed commentary is covered in section XIII 1-3.

Maha Narayanopanishad XIII-8:

santatam silaabhistu lambatyaakoshasannibham.h |
tasyaante sushhiram suukshma.n tasmintsarvaM pratishhThitam.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.8)

MEANING:

XIII-8: Like the bud of a lotus, suspends in an inverted position, the heart, surrounded by arteries. In it there is a narrow space (or near it there is a narrow space called Susumna). In it everything is supported.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

A detailed commentary is covered in section XIII 1-3.

Maha Narayanopanishad XIII-9-11:

tasya madhye mahaanagnirvishvaarchirvishvatomukhaH |
so.agrabhugvibhajantishhThannaahaaramajaraH kaviH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.9)
tiryaguurdhvamadhaHshaayii rashmayastasya santataaH |
santaapayati sva.n dehamaapaadatalamastakam.h |
tasya madhye vahnishikhaa aNiiyordhvaa vyavasthitaa | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.10)
niilatoyadamadhyasthaa vidyullekheva bhaasvaraa |
niivaarashuukvattanvii piitaa bhaasvatyaNuupama (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.11)

MEANING:

XIII-9-11: In the middle of that (narrow space of the heart or Susumna) remains the undecaying, all-knowing, omnifaced, great Fire, which has flames on every side, which enjoys the food presented before it, which remains assimilating the food consumed, (the rays of which spread scattering themselves vertically and horizontally), and which warms its own body from the insole to the crown. In the centre of that Fire Which permeates the whole body, there abides a tongue of Fire, of the colour of shining gold, which is the topmost among the subtle, which is dazzling like the flash of the lightning that appears in the middle of a rain-bearing cloud, which is as slender as the awn of a paddy grain; and which serves as a comparison to illustrate subtlety.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

A detailed commentary is covered in section XIII 1-3. However only few highlights I would touch here. The supreme Agni being talked here is the Jwala Linga of Lord Shiva. This is the same Shiva who runs through Sushumna as Kundalini Shakti. This verse talks about this Agni having faces everywhere (Vishwatomoukhah), and we had seen numerous references from vedas calling Lord Shiva as having faces everywhere (In fact It's only Lord Shiva in Hinduism who has faces everywhere viz. Sadyojata, Vamadeva, Aghra, Tatpurusha and Eshana). The adjectives 'vishwatomukha', 'Sarvatomukha', etc all apply only on Lord Shiva.
Here this verse also talks about the Paramatman shining like Vidyullekha (Electric spark). This also proves that it is only that Lord Rudra who qualifies to fit here based on the below evidence.

"yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM
brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya
IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
"That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also Eeshana (the form of Lord Shiva with tuft and riding on a bull), it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things".

So, even though this verse XIII-9-11 are metaphorically considered as Narayana's prayer, there is no Narayana in it in reality. In Relative order of reality this verse is metaphorically used on Narayana, howevere in Absolute order of reality there is only Shiva in it no Narayana(Vishnu).

Maha Narayanopanishad XIII-12:

tasyaaH shikhaayaa madhye paramaatmaa vyavasthitaH |
sa brahmaa sa shivaH sa hariH sendraH so.aksharaH paramaH svaraaT.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.12)

MEANING:

XIII-12: Paramatman dwells in the middle of that flame. (Although He is thus limited) still He is the four-faced creator, Siva, Vishnu, Indra, the material and efficient cause of the Universe and the Supreme Self-luminous Pure Consciousness.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

A detailed commentary is covered in section XIII 1-3. It talks about the Lord Shiva in his nirguna form from whom all the saguna forms emanate. From the unborn and Nirguna Lord Rudra Hiranyagarbha emerged. And again the Lord Rudra manifested himself as the various Gods including he himself (Rudra), Vishnu, Agni, Indra, Moon, etc. We had discussed these topics earleir also. So, not repeating the references here. But would present here a direct verse which would hit the bulls eye to explain the concept clearly.

The below verse talks about the supreme lord who is the lord of Maya. The next verse clarifies that this lord of Maya is Maheshwara.

"sarvabhuutaanaa.n hR^idaye sa.nnivishhTo maayaavii maayayaa kriiDati sa brahmaa
sa vishhNuH sa rudraH sa indraH sa sarve devaaH sarvaaNi bhuutaani sa eva
purastaatsa eva pashchaatsa evottarataH sa eva dakshiNataH sa evaadhastaatsa
evoparishhTaatsa eva sarvam.h |" (Shandilya Upanishad Ch.-3)
"That Supreme Lord who is endowed with all kinds of wealth, who is all pervading, who is situated in the hearts of all beings, who is the Lord of Maya and whose form is Maya; He is Brahma; He is Vishnu; He is Rudra (deity of destruction); He is Indra; He is all the Devas; He is all the Bhutas (elements or beings); He only is before; He only is behind; He only is on our left; He only is on our right; He only is below; He only is above; He only is the all".

"athaasya yaa sahajaastyavidyaa muulaprakR^itirmaayaa lohitashuklakR^ishhNaa |
tayaa sahaayavaan devaH kR^ishhNapi~Ngalo maheshvara iishhTe |" (Shandilya Upanishad Ch.-3)
"Maheshvara (the great Lord) who is black and yellow rules with Avidya, Mula-Prakriti or Maya that is red (Mahalakshmi), white(Mahasaraswati) and black(Mahakali) and that is co-existent with him".

"umaasahaayaM parameshvaraM prabhuM trilochanaM niilakaNThaM prashaantam.h |
dhyaatvaa munirgachchhati bhuutayoniM samastasaakShiM tamasaH parastaat.h |" (Kaivalya Upanishad 7)
"sa brahmaa sa shivaH sendraH so.akSharaH paramaH svaraaT.h |
sa eva viShNuH sa praaNaH sa kaalo.agniH sa chandramaaH |" (Kaivalya Upanishad 8)
"Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him (Rudra) who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya). He is Brahma, He is Shiva (in Saguna form), He is Indra, He is the Immutable, the Supreme, the Self-luminous, He alone is Vishnu, He is Prana, He is Time and Fire, He is the Moon".

Therefore, the 'Paramatman' being talked here in this verse is only the supreme Purusha (Shiva) who engendered Hiranyagarbha and through that he manifested into various forms. This is not at all related to Narayana (Vishnu).

Maha Narayanopanishad XIV-1:

aadityo vaa eshha etanmaNDala.n tapati tatra taa R^ichastadR^ichaa maNDalam |
sa R^ichaa.n loko.atha ya eshha etasminmaNDale.archirdiipyate taani saamaani sa |
saamnaa.n loko.atha ya eshha etasminmaNDale.archishhi purushhastaani |
yajuumshhi sa yajushhaa maNDalam sa yajushhaa.n lokaH saishhaa trayyeva |
vidyaa tapati ya eshho.antaraaditye hiraNmayaH purushhaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.14.1)

MEANING:

XIV-1: Verily Aditya is He; This orb of His gives light and heat; The well-known Rik verses are there; Therefore the orb is the collection of Riks; He is the abode of the Rik verses. Now this flame which is shining in the orb of the sun is the collection of Saman chants; That is the abode of Saman chants. Now He who is the Person in the flame within the orb of the sun (is to be meditated as) the collection of Yajus; that part of the orb is the collection of Yajus; That is the abode of Yajus. Thus by these three the threefold knowledge alone shines. He who is within the sun is the Golden Person.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

All the four Vedas manifested from Lord Rudra only. The Sun is himself a manifestation of Lord Rudra. The Sun shines with Lord Rudra's brilliance. It is Lord Rudra who is the sparkling diving Purusha present inside the Sun.

We have the following references to support this claim.

"shivo guruH shivo vedaH shiva devaH shivaH prabhuH |
shivo.asmyaha.n shivaH sarva.n shivadanyanna ki.nchana |" (Varaha Upanishad 4:32)
"Shiva alone is Guru; Shiva alone is Vedas; Shiva alone is Lord; Shiva alone is I; Shiva alone is all. There is none other than Shiva". These words are spoken by none otehr than Lord Varaha (Vishnu).

"Asau yoavasarpati nilagrivo vilohitah |" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram - Anuvaka:1)
"The black-throated Rudra who has assumed the form of the sun that glows red when rising"

"Asau yastamro aruna uta babhruh sumangalah Ye chemarudra abhito" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram - Anuvaka:1)
"This Sun who is copper-red when he arises, then golden-youllow, this highly auspicious and beneficent one is truly Rudra".

"yò 'sya dvitī́yaḥ prāṇáḥ práuḍho nā́māsáu sá ādityáḥ |" (Atharva Veda 15:15.4)
"His (Vratya-Rudra) second vital breath, called Mature, is that Āditya".

"vedaahametaM purushhaM mahaantamaadityavarNa.n tamasaH parastaat.h |
tameva viditvaatimR^ityumeti naanyaH panthaa vidyate.ayanaaya "" (Sve. Upa. 3:08)
"I know that great person (purusha) of sunlike lustre beyond the darkness. A man who knows him truly, passes over death; there is no other path to go".

"devana hridayebhyo namah |" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9)
"Salutations to Rudra who is the indweller inside the sparkling heart of all Gods"
Hence Aditya(Sun) being a god and manifestation of lord Rudra, the golden person who is within the Sun is lord Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad XV-1:

aadityo vai teja ojo bala.n yashashchakshuH shrotramaatmaa mano manyurmanurmR^ityuH |
satyo mitro vaayuraakaashaH praaNo lokapaalaH kaH ki.n ka.n tatsatyamannamamR^ito |
jiivo vishvaH katamaH svayambhu brahmaitadamR^ita eshha purushha eshha |
bhuutaanaamadhipatirbrahmaNaH saayujyam salokataamaapnotyetaasaameva devataanaam |
saayujyam saarshhTitaam samaanalokataamaapnoti ya eva.n vedetyupanishhat.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.15.1)

MEANING:

XV-1: The sun alone is verily all these: -- energy, splendour, strength, renown, sight, hearing, body, mind, anger, Seer, the Deities Death, Satya, Mitra, Wind, Ether and Breath, the Rulers of the world, Prajapati, the Indeterminable One, happiness, that which transcends the senses, truth, food, (span of life), liberation or Immortality, individual Soul, the Universe, the acme of bliss and the self-born Brahman. This Person in the sun is eternal. He is the Lord of all creatures. He who meditates thus upon Him attains union with Brahman and lives in the same region of enjoyment with Him; he attains union, co-residence and like-enjoyment with these gods in their worlds. The secret knowledge is thus imparted.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse praises Sun with so many adjectives. Hence it becomes a necessity to prove each adjective separately. Here ths Sun is said to be the following items stated in bulletted points. The explanation juxtaposed under these points are the ones which are stated in Vedic references. It is to be noted that all these adjectives actually apply on the indweller of the Sun viz. Bhagwan Rudra. These are applied on Sun but actually are the adjectives (qualities) of Lord Rudra only. Let's see the evidences now:

1. teja (energy), 2. ojo (splendour):-

"yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachcha tejastasmai vai namonamaH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:19)
"He who is Rudra, he alone is god. He is te Supreme Light and we salute him again and again".

3. bala.n (strength)

śreṣṭho jātasya rudra śriyāsi tavastamastavasāṃ vajrabāho |
parṣi ṇaḥ pāramaṃhasaḥ svasti viśvā abhītī rapaso yuyodhi || (Rig Veda 2:33:3)
"Chief of all born art thou in glory, Rudra, armed with the thunder, mightiest of the mighty. Transport us over trouble to well-being repel thou from us all assaults of mischief".

"sa hi kṣayeṇa kṣamyasya janmanaḥ sāmrājyena divyasya cetati |
avannavantīrupa no duraścarānamīvo rudra jāsu no bhava ||" (Rig Veda 7:46:2)
"He through his lordship thinks on beings of the earth, on heavenly beings through his high imperial sway (controlling influence or power). Come willingly to our doors that gladly welcome thee, and heal all sickness, Rudra., in our families".

4. yashash (renown)

Sri Rudram Chamakam portion states it clearly that the Lord of Riches is Rudra alone. And hence Vedic hymns of Chamakam request time and again to Lord Rudra to shower proeprity, grace, fame, wealth, etc. on them. Here are few direct extarcts from Chamakam to support this point. "shreyashcha me vasyashcha me yashashcha me", "arthashcha me", "dhanam cha me".

So, Yasha (fame, renown) is not only the quality of Lord Rudra but it is he who can give that as boon to others.

5. chakshuH (sight), 6. shrotram (hearing), 7. aatmaa (body), 8. mano (mind)

Mind, Body, Intelelct, Eyes, Ears, Skin, Indriyas all these have been considered as Pranas in various Upanishads. And Pranas are Maruts (sons of Rudra). Atman (Self) is the Rudra. So, it's lord Rudra only who exists as all these Pranas and their controller also.

9. manyur (anger)

Sri Rudram itself begins with the salutations to Lord Rudra's anger as "Namaste Rudra Manyava..... (Salutations to thy anger O Rudra.... )"

10. manur (Seer)

The scriptures call Brihaspati as the greatest seer. He is also a manifestation of Bhagwan Rudra.

"sá yád ūrdhvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad bŕ̥haspátir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad vaṣaṭkārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |" (Atharva Veda 15:14:9)
"He (Vratya-Rudra), when he went away to the upper region, went away having become Brihaspati and having made the exclamation Vashat an eater of food".

11. mR^ityuH (the Deity of Death)

"sá yát pitr̥̄́n ánu vyácalad yamó rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat svadhākārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |" (Atharva Veda 15:14:7)
"He (Vratya-Rudra), when he went away to the Fathers, went away having be-
come King Yama and having made the exclamation Svadhā an eater of food".

12. satyo (Satya)

"R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
"Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness and Truth (satyam), is the androgynous Person the Umamaheshvara".

13. mitro (Mitra)

"mitraH ... gopatistvam.h |" (Ekakshara Upanishad 12)
"Thou (Shiva) art Mitra".

14. vaayur (Wind)

Wind (Vayu) is a manifestation of Lord Rudra only as stated in below vere.

"tamabravīdugro 'sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodvāyustadrūpambhavadvāyurvā
ugrastasmādyadā balavadvāyugro vātotyāhuḥ |" (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:13)
"He said to him, 'Thou art Ugra.' And because he gave him that name, Vâyu (the wind) became suchlike, for Ugra is Vâyu: hence when it blows strongly, they say 'Ugra is blowing.'"

15. aakaashaH (Ether)

Lord Rudra (Vratya) produced ether from one of his breaths.

"yò 'sya dvitī́yo vyānás tád antárikṣam |" (Atharva Veda 15:17.2)
"His second diffused breath is that ether".

16. praaNo (Breath)

"yadida.n ki.n cha jagat.h sarvaM praaNa ejati niHsR^itam.h |
mahad.hbhayaM vajramudyataM ya etadviduramR^itaaste bhavanti |" (Katha Upa. II.3.2)
"All this universe, evolved (from Brahman), moves in prana (in Rudra); the most frightful like an uplifted thunderbolt. Those who know this become immortal".

Who is this Prana who holds thunderbolt? Answer is given in below verse.

"śreṣṭho jātasya rudra śriyāsi tavastamastavasāṃ vajrabāho |
parṣi ṇaḥ pāramaṃhasaḥ svasti viśvā abhītī rapaso yuyodhi |" (Rig Veda 2.33.3)
" In glory thou art the most glorious of all that exists, O Rudra, the strongest of the strong, thou wielder of the thunderbolt! Carry us happily to the other shore of our anguish, and ward off all assaults of mischief".

“so.aha.n sarvAkAraH . yato vA imAni bhUtAni jAyante |
yena jAtAni jIvanti . yatprayantyabhisa.nvishanti . taM mAmeva
viditvopAsIta . bhUtebhirdevebhirabhiShTuto.ahameva . bhIShAsmAdvAtaH
pavate . bhIShodeti sUryaH . bhIShAsmAdagnishchendrashcha . somo.ata
eva yo.aha.n sarveShAmadhiShThAtA sarveShA.n cha bhUtAnAM
pAlakaH . so.ahaM pR^ithivI . so.ahamApaH . so.aha.n tejaH . so.aha.n vAyuH |
so.aha.n kAlaH . so.aha.n dishaH . so.ahamAtmA . mayi sarvaM pratiShThitam.h |
brahmavidApnoti param.h . brahmA shivo me astu sadAshivom.h |” (Bhasma Jabala Upanishad)
“I myself am that Great Lord Siva, God of all gods, and the Supreme Controller of all the universes. I am that Brahman, I am Omkara; I am the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer of all. Through My terror only, vayu blows, through my terror only Surya shines, through my terror only fire burns, Indra et al also function properly through my terror. I am this world and the five elements. I am the Highest Truth that exists, the Brahman of the Upanishads”.

17. lokapaalaH (the Ruler of the world)

"sarvago bhuvanasyaasya goptaa |" (Sve. Upa. 6:17)
"He is ever-present guardian of this universe".

"jagatam pataye namo" (Sri Rudram of Yaurveda - 2nd Anuvaka)
"salutations to Rudra who is Lord of entire creation(jagat)"

"sa hi kṣayeṇa kṣamyasya janmanaḥ sāmrājyena divyasya cetati |
avannavantīrupa no duraścarānamīvo rudra jāsu no bhava ||" (Rig Veda 7:46:2)
"He through his lordship thinks on beings of the earth, on heavenly beings through his high imperial sway (controlling influence or power). Come willingly to our doors that gladly welcome thee, and heal all sickness, Rudra., in our families".

18. kaH (Prajapati)

Prajapati is a manifestation of Vratya (Rudra) only.

"sá yát prajā́ ánu vyácalat prajā́patir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat prāṇám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́|" (Atharva Veda 15:14:11)
"He (Vratya-Rudra), when he went away to creatures, went away having become Prajāpati and having made vital breath an eater of food".

19. ki.n (the Indeterminable One)

The creation hymn of Rig Veda 10:129, even though it tries to narrate the creation from the supreme Brahman (Shiva), it expresses its inability / gets confused to determine it accurately in the verse RV 10:192.7. However a careful correlative study if we perform then it would be clear that the creation started from the Nirguna Shiva who is the Brahman of Vedas.
In the beginning when there was only non-existence, there was only the Nirguna Brahman (Shiva) alone. That Shiva who is the Purusha who existed in his Jwala-Linga (Skhambha) form desired to multiply and create. Kama arose in him. Hence lord Shiva is termed as Kameshhwara the lord who is the cause behind the generation of the universe.

"kaamas tad agre sam avartataadhi manaso retah prathamam yad aasit |" (Rig veda 10:129:4)
"Kama rose in the beginning, Kama, the primal seed and germ of Spirit".

Hymn to Vishwakarma (Rudra) from Rig Veda states it further how the germ(seed) of Shiva became the cause of universe.

"paro divā para enā pṛthivyā paro devebhirasurairyadasti |
kaṃ svid gharbhaṃ prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥsamapaśyanta viśve |" (Rig Veda 10:82:5)
"That which is earlier than this earth and heaven, before the Asuras and Gods had being,—What was the germ primeval which the waters received where all the Gods were seen together?"

"tamid gharbhaṃ prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥsamaghachanta viśve |
ajasya nābhāvadhyekamarpitaṃyasmin viśvāni bhuvanāni tasthuḥ |" (Rig Veda 10:82:6)
"The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the Gods were gathefed all together. It rested set upon the Unborn's navel, that One wherein abide all things existing".

Even though we have Rig Veda's Purusha Suktam, Yajurveda (Shatapatha Brahmana) and Atharvaveda (Skhambha Suktam) describing the creation arising from Shiva, still then they state a caveat clearly stating that only half of the unborn Rudra (Skhambha) begotten the entire creation, other half is unnoticed. Therefore this is what is indeterminable about lord Shiva. Only half of him is known as existence, other half is non-entity which is known only to him.

20. ka.n (happiness)

"chidaanandamaruupamadbhutam.h |" (Kaivalyopanishad 6)
"O Lord Shiva! You're Consciousness, and Bliss, the formless and the wonderful".

21. tat (that which transcends the senses)

"ahamasmi parashchaasmi brahmaasmi prabhavo.asmyaham.h |
sarvalokagurushchaami sarvaloke.asmi so.asmyaham.h |" (Maitreya Upanishad 3:01)
"I am I, I am the other (the supreme one), I am Brahman, I am the source (of all), I am also the Guru of all the worlds, I am all the worlds, I am That". Spoken by Lord Shiva.

22. satyam (truth)

"R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
"Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness and Truth, is the androgynous Person the Umamaheshvara".

23. annam (food)

"annanam pataye namo" (Yajurveda Sri Rudram - Anuvaka-2)
"Salutations to Rudra who is the lord of food".

24. amR^ito (liberation or Immortality)

"yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachchAmR^ita.n tasmai vai namonamaH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:23)
"He who is Rudra, he alone is god. He is immortality and we salute him again and again".

25. jiivo (individual Soul)

"deho devaalayaH proktaH sa jiivaH kevalaH shivaH |" (Maitreyi Upanishad II:1)
"The body is said to be the temple; the individual Self (Jiva) is Shiva alone".

26. vishvaH (the Universe)

"vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat |
sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
"The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such".

27. katamaH (the acme of bliss)

"chidvidyA.advitIyabrahmasaMvittiH sacchidAnandalaharI |" (Bahvricha Upanishad 5)
"She is the Science of Consciousness, non-dual Brahman Consciousness, a wave of Being-Consciousness-Bliss".

Who is "She" here? - She is mahatripurasundari stated in verse 6. She is the shakti of Shambhu as stated below.

"saiShA parA shaktiH | saiShA shAMbhavIvidyA | kAdividyeti vA hAdividyeti vA sAdividyeti vA | rahasyamomoM vAchi pratiShThA |" (Bahvricha Upanishad 3)
"She, here, is the Power supreme. She, here, is the science of Sambhu, either as the science beginning with ka, or as the science beginning with ha, or as the science beginning with sa. This is the secret Om grounded in the word Om".

"chidaanandamaruupamadbhutam.h |" (Kaivalyopanishad 6)
"O Lord Shiva! You're Consciousness, and Bliss, the formless and the wonderful".

28. svayambhu (self-born)

"ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some |" (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
"Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma".

"svayaMbhuuratha..|" (Ekakshara Upanishad 12)
"Thou art the self-born".

29. brahmaitadamR^ita (Brahman)

"yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM
brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya
IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |" (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
"hat which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also Eeshana (the form of Lord Shiva with tuft and riding on a bull), it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things".

30. eshha (Lord of all creatures)

"umaapataye pashupataye namo namaH |" (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.22.1)
"Salutations to the overlord of all created beings and who is the lord of Uma".

"paśūntāṃścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān ghrāmyāśca ye |" (Rig Veda 10.90.8)
"He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame".

"Pashupatih Pashunaam Chatushpadam uta ca dvipadam |" (Yajurveda III-1-4 & Taittiriya Samhita 3:1:4:2)
"What cattle the lord of cattle(pashupati) ruleth?, He rules Both the four-footed and the two-footed."

31. purushha eshha (This Person in the sun is eternal)

"purusho vai rudrah" (Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka 10:24:1)
"Lord Rudra is Veda Purusha". Kaushitaki Brahmana (6:1:13) of Rig Veda calls Lord Rudra as "sahasrakha sahasrapat" (tata.udatiṣṭhat.sahasra.akṣaḥ.sahasra.pāt).

So, from the above analysis it becomes clear that all those 31 attributes which were applied exhaustively on Sun actually are the qualities which belong to Lord Rudra.

Maha Narayanopanishad XV-2:

ghR^iNiH suurya aadityomarchayanti tapaH satyaM madhu ksharanti tadbrahma tadaapa |
aapo jyotii raso.amR^itaM brahma bhuurbhuvaH suvarom.h | (XV-2) //Verse not found in Vedas.

MEANING:

XV-2: Aditya, the supreme cause of the universe, is the giver of light and water and is the source of all energy. He is denoted by the syllable Om. Gods worship Him as Tapas and Truth. (Being worshipped thus) He grants bliss to the worshippers. (Or the worshippers offer honey and sweet offerings to Him). That form of the sun is Brahman. That is the pervading cause of all. That is water, fire, flavour and ambrosia. The three Vyahritis representing the three worlds and the Pranava representing the cause of the universe denote that Brahman.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is a duplicate one. We had seen in previous sections of this upanishad the similar qualities attributed to Aditya (sun), vena (noon sun) and there we ahd already discussed extensively that those praises actually apply on Lord Rudra who is the supreme and original cause of all causes. Let's skip this section to avoid redundance of efforts.

Maha Narayanopanishad XVI-1:

nidhanapataye namaH . nidhanapataantikaaya namaH |
uurdhvaaya namaH . uurdhvali~Ngaaya namaH |
hiraNyaaya namaH . hiraNyali~Ngaaya namaH |
suvarNaaya namaH . suvarNali~Ngaaya namaH |
divyaaya namaH . divyali~Ngaaya namaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.16.1)
bhavaaya namaH. bhavali~Ngaaya namaH |
sharvaaya namaH . sharvali~Ngaaya namaH |
shivaaya namaH . shivali~Ngaaya namaH |
jvalaaya namaH . jvalali~Ngaaya namaH |
aatmaaya namaH . aatmali~Ngaaya namaH |
paramaaya namaH . paramali~Ngaaya namaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.16.2)

MEANING:

XVI-1: [By these twenty-two names ending with salutations they consecrate the Sivalinga for all] – the Linga which is representative of soma and Surya, and holding which in the hand holy formulas are repeated and which purifies all:
Nidhanapataye Namah ! [Salutations to the Lord of the dissolution of the universe ]]
Nidhanapataantikaya Namah ! [Salutations to the end-maker (Yama who is responsible for the death of all creatures) ]]
Urdhvaya Namah ! [Salutations to the Most High standing at the head of the categories which evolve into the universe ]]
Urdhva-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to the principle of Sadasiva embodying the power of Intelligence ]]
Hiranyaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is beneficial and charming to creatures ]]
Hiranya-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is visualized as the Linga made of gold ]]
Suvarnaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is endowed with attractive splendour ]]
Suvarna-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is of the form of Linga made of suvarna (silver) ]]
Divyaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is the source of bliss in heaven ]]
Divya-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is worshipped as the divine emblem ]]
Bhavaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is the source of the cycle of birth and death ]]
Bhava-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is worshipped as the Linga by human beings ]]
Sarvaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is the suppresser of the universe at the time of final dissolution ]]
Sarva-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who has the shape of the Linga emblem of Sarva, who gives bliss ]]
Shivaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is most auspicious ]]
Shiva-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who has the form of Sivalinga ]]
Jvalaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who has the form of a flaming splendour ]]
Jvala-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who has the form of the brilliant Linga ]]
Atmaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is the Spirit - Atman - dwelling in all creatures ]]
Atma-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is concealed in the heart of all creatures being their inmost Self ]]
Paramaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is unsurpassed ]]
Parama Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him, He who is the Supreme Lord of bliss and liberation indicated by the Linga emblem ]]

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

One thing to be noted in above verse is "Jwalaya namah", and Jwalalingaya Namah". These attributes are nothing but the Skhambha form of Lord Rudra.

This point onwards the part of Umanishad becomes very direct in it's statements and directly eulogizes lord Rudra. So, these setions need not get accompanied by any commentary, they are self-explanatory in nature.

Maha Narayanopanishad XVII-1:

sadyojaataM prapadyaami sadyojaataaya vai namo namaH |
bhave bhave naatibhave bhavasva maam.h . bhavodbhavaaya namaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.17.1)

MEANING:

XVII-1: I take refuge in Sadyojata. Verily I salute Sadyojata again and again. O Sadyojata, do not consign me to repeated birth; lead me beyond birth, into the state of bliss and liberation. I bow down to Him who is the source of transmigratory existence.

Maha Narayanopanishad XVIII-1:

vaamadevaaya namo jyeshhThaaya namaH shreshhThaaya namo rudraaya namaH kaalaaya namaH
kalavikaraNaaya namo balavikaraNaaya namo balaaya namo balapramathaaya
namaH sarvabhuutadamanaaya namo manonmanaaya namaH (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.18.1)

MEANING:

XVIII-1: Salutation to Vamadeva [the beautiful and shining One or the generous God]. Salutation to Jyestha [the Eldest, existing before creation]. Salutation to Srestha [the most worthy and excellent]. Salutation to Rudra [He who causes creatures to weep at the time of dissolution]. Salutation to Kala [He who is the Power of time responsible for the evolution of Nature]. Salutation to Kalavikarana [He who causes changes in the evolution of the universe beginning with Prakriti]. Salutation to Balavikarana [He who is the producer of varieties and degrees of strength]. Salutation to Bala [He who is the source of all strength]. Salutation to Balapramathana [He who suppresses all power at the time of retraction]. Salutation to Sarvabhutadamana [the Ruler of all the created beings]. Salutation to Manonmana [He who is the kindler of the light of the soul].

Maha Narayanopanishad XIX-1:

aghorebhyo.atha ghorebhyo ghoraghoratarebhyaH |
sarvataH sharva sarvebhyo namaste astu rudraruupebhyaH (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.19.1)

MEANING:

XIX-1: Now, O Sarva, my salutations be at all times and all places to Thy Rudra forms, benign, terrific, more terrific and destructive.

Maha Narayanopanishad XX-1:

tatpurushhaaya vidmahe mahaadevaaya dhiimahi |
tanno rudraH prachodayaat.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.20.1)

MEANING:

XX-1: May we know or realize the Supreme Person. For that, may we meditate upon Mahadeva and to that meditation may Rudra impel us.

Maha Narayanopanishad XXI-1:

iishaanaH sarvavidyaanaamiishvaraH sarvabhuutaanaaM |
brahmaadhipatirbrahmaNo.adhipatirbrahmaa shivo me astu sadaashivom.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.21.1)

MEANING:

XXI-1: May the Supreme who is the ruler of all knowledge, controller of all created beings, the preserver of the Vedas and the one overlord of Hiranyagarbha, be benign to me. I am the Sadasiva described thus and denoted by Pranava.

Maha Narayanopanishad XXII-1:

namo hiraNyabaahave hiraNyavarNaaya hiraNyaruupaaya hiraNyapataye.ambikaapataya |
umaapataye pashupataye namo namaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.22.1)

MEANING:

XXII-1: Salutations again and again to Hiranyabahu [One who has ornaments of gold on the arms or possessing a form having the golden hue], Hiranyavarna [He who is the source of the syllables of the Vedas which are as precious as gold], Hiranyarupa [He who is shining in splendour], Hiranyapati [the Lord of riches wholesome and charming], Ambikapati [the consort of Ambika, the Mother of the universe], Umapati [The master of Uma, Brahma-vidya personified as such], Pasupati [the Lord of all created beings].

Maha Narayanopanishad XXIII-1:

R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)

MEANING:

XXIII-1: Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Reality (Righteousness and Truth), is the androgynous Person the Umamaheshvara, dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste and possessing uncommon eyes. Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe or whose form is the universe.

Maha Narayanopanishad XXIV-1:

sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraaya namo astu |
purushho vai rudraH sanmaho namo namaH |
vishvaM bhuutaM bhuvana.n chitraM bahudhaa jaata.n jaayamaana.n cha yat.h |
sarvo hyeshha rudrastasmai rudraaya namo astu | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.24.1)

MEANING:

XXIV-1: All this verily is Rudra. To Rudra who is such we offer our salutation. We salute again and again that Being, Rudra, who alone is the light and the Soul of creatures. The material universe the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such.

Maha Narayanopanishad XXV-1:

kadrudraaya prachetase miiDhushhTamaaya tavyase |
vochema sha.ntamam hR^ide |
sarvohyeshha rudrastasmai rudraaya namo astu | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.25.1)

MEANING:

XXV-1: We sing a hymn that confers on us happiness in the highest degree to Rudra who is worthy of praise, who is endowed with the highest knowledge, who rains objects to the worshippers most excellently, who is more powerful and who is dwelling in the heart. Indeed all this is Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such.



Mahanarayanopanishad verses translation belong to Swami Vimalananda. Interpretation, Commentary, Reasoning & Analysis belong to me

Copyright © 2011, by Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula. All Rights Reserved.
Check the Footer of this blog for Licenses related details.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Have you read the "Terms & Conditions" page before trying to post comments here? if not, then please go through the following link:

http://mahapashupatastra.blogspot.in/p/licensing-permissions-for-sharing.html